Login | Register

Indexing Behaviours Indicative of Ecological Citizenship in Canada


Indexing Behaviours Indicative of Ecological Citizenship in Canada

Perks, M (2017) Indexing Behaviours Indicative of Ecological Citizenship in Canada. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

Text (application/pdf)
Perks_MA_F2017.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


The concept of ecological citizenship, a transformative ideology of citizenship whereby citizens are connected through their moral environmental obligations, has been mainly theoretical in nature within contemporary literature. In addition, the literature on pro-environmental behaviours presupposes that individuals face barriers both externally and internally, preventing their participation in these activities. A lack of nationally representative data exists that quantifies the impacts on pro-environmental behaviour participation. This thesis aims to address these three components by applying the theoretical foundation of ecological citizenship to a dataset covering the environmental household behaviours of a sample of Canadian households (N = 22,363) representative of the majority of the Canadian population. The creation of an index of behaviours that could be theoretically associated with ecological citizenship is the primary goal of this thesis. The analysis then examines the index alongside variables that situate both the geographic, socio-economic, and demographic characteristics of these households. Using a combination of multivariate linear and logistic regressions, the impact of these variables will be analyzed to identify the strength and direction of these variables, taking into consideration the effect of all variables at once. Findings suggest that certain variables have a greater impact on the number of behaviours a household can participate in. From these findings, a discussion of how best to address these impacts is explored within the context of our foundation on ecological citizenship and how best to bring this theoretical concept into an applied sphere of thinking.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Sociology and Anthropology
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Perks, M
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Date:14 July 2017
Thesis Supervisor(s):Neves, Katja and Gauvreau, Danielle
Keywords:environmental sociology, pro-environmental behaviours, ecological citizenship, environmental behaviours, Canada
ID Code:982701
Deposited On:10 Nov 2017 14:27
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:55


Abel, T. D., & Stephan, M. (2000). The limits of civic environmentalism. American Behavioral Scientist, 44(4), 614-628.
Agyeman, J., & Angus, B. (2003). The role of civic environmentalism in the pursuit of sustainable communities. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 46(3), 345-363.
Agyeman, J. (2005). Sustainable communities and the challenge of environmental justice. NYU Press.
Antin, Judd. (2012). “Gamification is Not a Dirty Word.” Interactions 19:14.
Atkinson, G., & Mourato, S. (2008). Environmental cost-benefit analysis. Annual review of environment and resources, 33, 317-344.
Bäckstrand, K., & Lövbrand, E. (2007). Climate governance beyond 2012: competing discourses of green governmentality, ecological modernization and civic environmentalism. The social construction of climate change: Power, knowledge, norms, discourses, 123-147.
Ball, C., 2009. What is transparency?. Public Integrity, 11 (4), 293–307.
Barry, J. (2012). The Politics of Actually Existing Unsustainability. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Bartholomew, D. J., Knott, M., & Moustaki, I. (2011). Latent variable models and factor analysis: A unified approach (Vol. 904). John Wiley & Sons.
Bell, D.R., 2005. Liberal environmental citizenship. Environmental Politics, 14 (2), 179–
Berkowitz, A. R., Ford, M. E., & Brewer, C. A. (2005). A framework for integrating ecological literacy, civics literacy, and environmental citizenship in environmental education. Environmental education and advocacy: Changing perspectives of ecology and education, 227, 66.
Biel, A., Dahlstrand, U., & Grankvist, G. (2005). Habitual and value-guided purchase behavior. Ambio: a journal of the human environment, 34(4), 360-365.
Bin, S., & Dowlatabadi, H. (2005). Consumer lifestyle approach to US energy use and the related CO 2 emissions. Energy policy, 33(2), 197-208.
Bista, S. K., Nepal, S., Paris, C., & Colineau, N. (2014). Gamification for online communities: A case study for delivering government services. International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems, 23(2).
Bogost, I., (2011)a. “Persuasive Games: Exploitationware.” Gama-sutra. Retrieved March 15, 2016 (http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/134735/persuasive_games_exploitationware.php).
Bogost, I., (2011)b. “Gamification is Bullshit.” Ian Bogost. Retrieved March 15, 2016 (http://bogost.com/writing/blog/gamification_is_bullshit/).
Bonde, M. T., Makransky, G., Wandall, J., Larsen, M. V., Morsing, M., Jarmer, H., et al. (2014). Improving biotech education through gamified laboratory simulations. Nature Biotechnology, 32(7), 694–697.
Borck, J. C., & Coglianese, C. (2009). Voluntary environmental programs: assessing their effectiveness. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 34, 305-324.
Boström, M., & Klintman, M. (2009). The green political food consumer. a critical analysis of the research and policies. Anthropology of Food, (S5).
Breckenridge, C. A. (2002). Cosmopolitanism (Vol. 4). Duke University Press
Burgess, J., Harrison, C. M., & Filius, P. (1998). Environmental communication and the cultural politics of environmental citizenship. Environment and planning A, 30(8), 1445-1460.
Cannavò, P. F. (2007). The working landscape: Founding, preservation, and the politics of place. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Carlsson-Kanyama, A., Ekström, M. P., & Shanahan, H. (2003). Food and life cycle energy inputs: consequences of diet and ways to increase efficiency. Ecological economics, 44(2), 293-307.
Carter, N. and Huby, M., (2005). Ecological citizenship and ethical investment.
Environmental Politics, 14 (2), 255–272.
Cattell, R. B. (1973). Personality and mood by questionnaire. Jossey-Bass.
Centeno, M. A., & Cohen, J. N. (2012). The arc of neoliberalism. Annual Review of Sociology, 38, 317-340.
Chen, X., Peterson, M. N., Hull, V., Lu, C., Lee, G. D., Hong, D., & Liu, J. (2011). Effects of attitudinal and sociodemographic factors on pro-environmental behaviour in urban China. Environmental Conservation, 38(1), 45-52.
Child, D. (2006). The essentials of factor analysis. A&C Black.
Christy, K. R., & Fox, J. (2014). Leaderboards in a virtual classroom: A test of stereotype threat and social comparison explanations for women’s math performance. Computers & Education, 78, 66–77.
Compost Montréal. (2016). Compost Montreal. Retrieved from: http://www.compostmontreal.com/
Courtenay-Hall, P., & Rogers, L. (2002). Gaps in mind: Problems in environmental knowledge-behaviour modelling research. Environmental Education Research, 8(3), 283-297.
Cunningham, C.A. and Tiefenbacher, J.P., 2008. Evaluating the effectiveness of public participation efforts by environmental agencies: repermitting a smelter in El Paso, Texas USA. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 26 (4), 841–856.
Danielsen, F., Pirhofer‐Walzl, K., Adrian, T. P., Kapijimpanga, D. R., Burgess, N. D., Jensen, P. M., ... & Madsen, J. (2014). Linking public participation in scientific research to the indicators and needs of international environmental agreements. Conservation Letters, 7(1), 12-24.
Dean, H. (2001). Green citizenship. Social policy & administration, 35(5), 490-505.
Deterding, S. (2012). Gamification: designing for motivation. interactions, 19(4), 14-17.
Dietz, T., Fitzgerald, A., Shwom R. (2005). Environmental Values. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 30, 335-372.
Dietz, T., Dan, A., and Shwom, R., (2007). Support for climate change policy: social psychological and structural influences. Rural Sociology, 72 (2), 185 –214.
Dobson, A. (2003). Citizenship and the Environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dobson, A., & Bell, D. (2005). Environmental citizenship. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dobson, A. (2007). Environmental citizenship: towards sustainable development. Sustainable development, 15(5), 276-285.
Drevensek, M., (2005). Negotiation as the driving force of environmental citizenship.
Environmental Politics, 14 (2), 226–238.
Duffy, M.M., Binder, A.J., and Skrentny, J.D., (2010). Elite status and social change: using field analysis to explain policy formulation and implementation. Social Problems, 57 (1), 49–73.
Dunn, C. M. (2010). Council Approaches to Implementing Sustainability: a case of rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic?. Australian Geographer, 41(3), 351-366.
Eriksson, C. (2004). Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation?—a differentiated-products example. Resource and energy economics, 26(3), 281-293.
Evans, J., & Karvonen, A. (2011). Living laboratories for sustainability: exploring the politics and epistemology of urban transition. Cities and low carbon transitions, 126-141.
Fekadu, Z., & Kraft, P. (2001). Self-identity in planned behavior perspective: Past behavior and its moderating effects on self-identity-intention relations. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 29(7), 671-685.
Gabrielson, T., (2008). Green citizenship: a review and critique. Citizenship Studies, 12 (4), 429–446.
Gabrielson, T. and Parady, K., (2010). Green citizenship: rethinking green citizenship through the body. Environmental Politics, 19 (3), 374–391.
Garon, S., (2013). Why America spends while the world saves. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Gatersleben, B., Murtagh, N., & Abrahamse, W. (2014). Values, identity and pro-environmental behaviour. Contemporary Social Science, 9(4), 374-392.
Geyer-Allély, E. (2002). Sustainable consumption: an insurmountable challenge?. Industry and environment, 25(1), 25-9.
Global Footprint Network. "Footprint Calculator” Retrieved on 09 Jan. 2017.
Green-Demers, I., Pelletier, L. G., & Menard, S. (1997). The impact of behavioural difficulty on the saliency of the association between self-determined motivation and environmental behaviours. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 29(3), 157.
Gronow, J. and Warde, A., (2001). Introduction. In: J. Gronow and A. Warde, eds. Ordinary consumption. London: Routledge, 1–8.
Guzman, G.I., (2011). The land cost of agrarian sustainability: an assessment. Land Use Policy, 28 (4), 825– 835.
Hailwood, S., (2005). Environmental citizenship as reasonable citizenship. Environmental
Politics, 14, 195–210.
Hamari, Juho and Jonna Koivisto. (2015). “Why Do People Use Gamification Services?” International Journal of Information Management 35(4):419-31.
Harman, H. H. (1976). Modern factor analysis. University of Chicago Press.
Hayward, T. (2000). Constitutional environmental rights: a case for political analysis. Political Studies, 48(3), 558-572.
Hayward, T. (2002). Environmental rights as democratic rights. Democracy and the Claims of Nature: Critical Perspectives for a New Century, 237-256.
Hayward, T. (2006). Ecological citizenship: justice, rights and the virtue of resourcefulness. Environmental politics, 15(03), 435-446.
Henderson, H., & Ikeda, D. (2004). Planetary citizenship: your values, beliefs, and actions can shape a sustainable world. Middleway Press.
Herian, M. N., Hamm, J. A., Tomkins, A. J., & Pytlik Zillig, L. M. (2012). Public participation, procedural fairness, and evaluations of local governance: The moderating role of uncertainty. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22(4), 815-840.
Hinchliffe, S., & Whatmore, S. (2006). Living cities: towards a politics of conviviality. Science as Culture, 15(2), 123-138.
Hobson, K., (2013). On the making of the environmental citizen. Environmental Politics, 22 (1), 56–72.
Hsu, A., Lloyd, A., & Emerson, J. W. (2013). What progress have we made since Rio? Results from the 2012 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) and Pilot Trend EPI. Environmental Science & Policy, 33, 171-185.
Huddart, J.E. (2005). An examination of pro-environmental behaviour: Evidence from a national survey of Canada. M.Sc. Thesis. Fredericton, NB: University of New Brunswick
Hursh, D. and Henderson, J., (2011). Contesting global neoliberalism and creating alternative futures. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 32 (2), 171–185.
Jackson, T. (2005). Motivating sustainable consumption. Sustainable Development Research Network, 29, 30.
Jagers, S. C., Martinsson, J., & Matti, S. (2014). Ecological citizenship: a driver of pro-environmental behaviour?. Environmental Politics, 23(3), 434-453.
Jarrell, M. L., Ozymy, J., & McGurrin, D. (2013). How to encourage conflict in the environmental decision-making process: imparting lessons from civic environmentalism to local policy-makers. Local Environment, 18(2), 184-200.
John, D. (1994). Civic environmentalism: alternatives to regulation in states and communities. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
John, D. (2004). “Civic environmentalism”, in Environmental governance reconsidered: challenges, choices, and opportunities. Eds R Durant, D Fiorino, R O’Leary. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Johnston, J. (2008). The citizen-consumer hybrid: ideological tensions and the case of Whole Foods Market. Theory and Society, 37(3), 229-270.
Jones, C. (2001). Global justice: defending cosmopolitanism. Oxford University Press.
Jones, C.M. and Kammen, D.M., (2011). Quantifying carbon footprint reduction opportunities for U.S. households and communities. Environmental Science and Technology, 45 (9), 4088–4095.
Juul, Jesper. (2003). “The Game, the Player, the World: Looking for a Heart of Gameness.” Pp. 30-45 in Level Up: Digital Games Research Proceedings, edited by M. Copier and J. Raessens. Utrecht University, Utrecht.
Karvonen, A., & Yocom, K. (2011). The civics of urban nature: enacting hybrid landscapes. Environment and Planning A, 43(6), 1305-1322.
Kenis, A. (2015). “From Individual to Collective Change and Beyond. Ecological Citizenship and Politicisation.” KU Leuven.
Kennedy, E. H., Beckley, T. M., McFarlane, B. L., & Nadeau, S. (2009). Why we don't" walk the talk": Understanding the environmental values/behaviour gap in Canada. Human Ecology Review, 16(2), 151.
Kilbourne, W. E., & Beckmann, S. C. (1998). Review and critical assessment of research on marketing and the environment. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), 513-532.
Kilbourne, W. E., Beckmann, S. C., & Thelen, E. (2002). The role of the dominant social paradigm in environmental attitudes: A multinational examination. Journal of business Research, 55(3), 193-204.
Koivisto, Jonna and Juho Hamari. (2014). “Demographic Differences in Perceived Benefits from Gamification.” Computers in Human Behavior 35:179–188.
Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior?. Environmental education research, 8(3), 239-260.
Kurian, P. A., Munshi, D., & Bartlett, R. V. (2014). Sustainable citizenship for a technological world: Negotiating deliberative dialectics. Citizenship Studies, 18(3-4), 435-451.
Laroche, M., Kim, C., & Zhou, L. (1996). Brand familiarity and confidence as determinants of purchase intention: An empirical test in a multiple brand context. Journal of business Research, 37(2), 115-120.
Latta, A., (2007). Locating democratic politics in ecological citizenship. Environmental Politics, 16 (3), 377–393.
Lauren, N., Fielding, K. S., Smith, L., & Louis, W. R. (2016). You did, so you can and you will: Self-efficacy as a mediator of spillover from easy to more difficult pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 48, 191-199.
Lee, J. J., Ceyhan, P., Jordan-Cooley, W., & Sung, W. (2013). GREENIFY: A real-world action game for climate change education. Simulation & Gaming, 44(2–3), 349–365.
Lorenzen, J. A. (2014). Green consumption and social change: debates over responsibility, private action, and access. Sociology Compass, 8(8), 1063-1081.
Lorenzoni, I., Nicholson-Cole, S., & Whitmarsh, L. (2007). Barriers perceived to engaging with climate change among the UK public and their policy implications. Global environmental change, 17(3), 445-459.
Lounis, S., Pramatari, K., & Theotokis, A. (2014). Gamification is all about fun: The role of incentive type and community collaboration. In Proceedings of ECIS 2014, Tel Aviv, Israel, June 9–11 (pp. 1–14).
Luque, E., (2005). Researching environmental citizenship and its publics. Environmental
Politics, 14 (2), 211–225.
Lyon, T. P., & Maxwell, J. W. (2004). Corporate environmentalism and public policy. Cambridge University Press.
Machin, A. (2012). Decisions, disagreement and responsibility: towards an agonistic green citizenship. Environmental Politics, 21(6), 847-863.
Maiteny, P. T. (2002). Mind in the Gap: summary of research exploring'inner'influences on pro-sustainability learning and behaviour.
Mannetti, L., Pierro, A., & Livi, S. (2004). Recycling: Planned and self-expressive behaviour. Journal of environmental psychology, 24(2), 227-236.
Mannion G, Biesta GJJ, Priestley M & Ross H (2014) The global dimension in education and education for global citizenship: genealogy and critique. In: de Oliveira Andreotti V (ed.). The political economy of global citizenship education, London: Routledge, pp. 134-147.
McGonigal, J. (2011). Reality is broken: Why games make us better and how they can change the world. Penguin.
McSheffrey, E. (2016). Here’s what Canadian kids are learning about climate change. National Observer. Retrieved from: http://www.nationalobserver.com/2016/06/05/news/heres-what-canadian-kids-are-learning-about-climate-change
Meadowcroft, J. (2004). “Deliberative democracy”, in Environmental governance reconsidered: challenges, choices, and opportunities. Eds R Durant, D Fiorino, R O’Leary. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Melo-Escrihuela, C. (2008). Promoting ecological citizenship: Rights, duties and political agency. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 7(2), 113-134.
Melo-Escrihuela, M. (2015). “Engaged Environmental Citizenship.” Environmental Politics 24 (1): 165–167
Middlemiss, L., (2014). Individualised or participatory? Exploring late-modern identity and sustainable development. Environmental Politics, 23 (6), 929–946.
Mitchell, R. B. (2003). International environmental agreements: a survey of their features, formation, and effects. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 28(1), 429-461.
Moisander, J. (2007). Motivational complexity of green consumerism. International journal of consumer studies, 31(4), 404-409.
Morgenstern, R. D., & Pizer, W. A. (2007). Reality check: The nature and performance of voluntary environmental programs in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Resources for the Future.
Morris, M. H. (2008). When it works and where it fails: Spatial, temporal, and budgetary constraints to civic environmentalism. Social Science Quarterly, 89(5), 1252-1276.
Moss, J. (2001). “Series Editor’s Preface” in J, Arthur, I. Davies, A. Wrenn, T. Haydn, and D. Kerr (eds.) Citizenship Through Secondary History. London: Routledge.
Moug, P., 2011. Decisions, dilemmas and deliberation: exploring the legitimacy of the organisation and design of a stakeholder workshop in an environmental research project. Local Environment, 16 (2), 129–145.
Olivier, J.G.J., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Muntean, M. Peters, J.H.A.W., Trends in global CO2 emissions - 2015 report, JRC report 98184 / PBL report 1803, November 2015.
Onwezen, M. C., Antonides, G., & Bartels, J. (2013). The Norm Activation Model: An exploration of the functions of anticipated pride and guilt in pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Economic Psychology, 39, 141-153.
Ostrom, Elinor. (1990). Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Owens, S., & Driffill, L. (2008). How to change attitudes and behaviours in the context of energy. Energy policy, 36(12), 4412-4418.
Paterson, M., and Stripple, J., (2010). My space: governing individuals’ carbon emissions. Environment and Planning D, 28 (2), 341–362.
Peattie, K. (2010). Green consumption: behavior and norms. Annual review of environment and resources, 35(1), 195.
Pedersen, E. R., & Neergaard, P. (2006). Caveat emptor–let the buyer beware! Environmental labelling and the limitations of ‘green’consumerism. Business strategy and the Environment, 15(1), 15-29.
Pellizzoni, L. (2011). Governing through disorder: Neoliberal environmental governance and social theory. Global Environmental Change, 21(3), 795-803.
Perks, M. (2015). Composting Program Participation and Availability Across Canada. Undergraduate Journal of Sociology, 42.
Pocock, J. G. A. (1995). “The Ideal of Citizenship Since Classical Times”, in Beiner, R. (ed.), Theorizing Citizenship, Albany: State University of New York Press.
Poortinga, W., Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2004). Values, environmental concern, and environmental behavior a study into household energy use. Environment and behavior, 36(1), 70-93.
Prakash, A., & Potoski, M. (2006). Racing to the bottom? Trade, environmental governance, and ISO 14001. American journal of political science, 50(2), 350-364.
Prokhovnik, R. (1998). Public and private citizenship: From gender invisibility to feminist inclusiveness. Feminist review, 60(1), 84-104.
Robertson, Margaret. (2010). “Can't Play, Won't Play.” Hide & Seek: Inventing New Kinds of Play. Retrieved March 15, 2016 (http://hideandseek.net/2010/10/06/cant-play-wont-play/).
Rose, N., & Miller, P. (1992). Political power beyond the state: Problematics of government. British journal of sociology, 173-205.
Rutland, T., and Aylett, A., (2008). The work of policy: actor networks, governmentality, and local action on climate change in Portland, Oregon. Environment and Planning D, 26 (4), 627–646.
Schild, R. (2016). Environmental citizenship: What can political theory contribute to environmental education practice?. The Journal of Environmental Education, 47(1), 19-34.
Scoville, C. (2016). George Orwell and ecological citizenship: moral agency and modern estrangement. Citizenship Studies, 20(6-7), 830-845.
Seaborn, K., & Fels, D. I. (2015). Gamification in theory and action: A survey. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 74, 14-31.
Seyfang, G. (2006). Ecological citizenship and sustainable consumption: Examining local organic food networks. Journal of rural studies, 22(4), 383-39
Shaw, S. and Thomas, C., (2006). Discussion note: social and cultural dimensions of air travel demand: hyper-mobility in the UK? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14 (2), 209 –215.
Shiva, V. (1998). “The Greening of Global Reach” in Gearoid O. Thuatail, S. D., and Routledge, P. (eds.), The Geopolitics Reader, London: Routledge.
Shutkin, W. A. (2001). The land that could be: Environmentalism and democracy in the twenty-first century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Skill, K. and Gyberg, P., (2010). Framing devices in the creation of environmental responsibility: a qualitative study from Sweden. Sustainability, 2 (7), 1869–1886
Smith, M. J. and Pangsapa, P., (2008). Environment and citizenship: integrating justice, responsibility and civic engagement. London; New York: Zed Books.
Smith, G. (2003). Deliberative democracy and the environment. Psychology Press.
Smith, G. (2005). Green citizenship and the social economy. Environmental Politics, 14(2), 273-289.
Statistics Canada. (2016, March 21). Households and the Environment Survey (HES). Retrieved January 09, 2017, from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&Id=247867
Soneryd, L. & Uggla, Y. (2015). Green governmentality and responsibilization: new forms of governance and responses to ‘consumer responsibility’, Environmental Politics. 24(6). 913–931.
Sovacool, B.K. and Brown, M.A., (2010). Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: a preliminary comparative global assessment. Energy Policy, 38, 4856–4869.
Statistics Canada. (2016, September 15). Condominium dwellings in Canada. Retrieved from: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-014-x/99-014-x2011003_1-eng.cfm
Steg, L., Bolderdijk, J. W., Keizer, K., & Perlaviciute, G. (2014). An integrated framework for encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: The role of values, situational factors and goals. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 104-115.
Stern, P.C., (2000). Towards a coherent theory of environmentally significant behaviour. Journal of Social Issues, 56 (3), 407 –424.
Terlutter, R., & Capella, M. L. (2013). The gamification of advertising: Analysis and research directions of in-game advertising, advergames, and advertising in social network games. Journal of Advertising, 42(2–3), 95–112.
Tolmie, P., Chamberlain, A., & Benford, S. (2014). Designing for reportability: Sustainable gamification, public engagement, and promoting environmental debate. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 18(7), 1763–1774.
Tuck, E., McKenzie, M., McCoy, K. (2014). Land education: Indigenous, post-colonial, and decolonizing perspectives on place and environment education research. Environmental Education Research. 20(1). 1–23.
Turrentine, T. S., & Kurani, K. S. (2007). Car buyers and fuel economy?. Energy policy, 35(2), 1213-1223.
Valencia, Á. (2005). Globalisation, cosmopolitanism and ecological citizenship. Environmental politics, 14(2), 163-178.
Van der Werff, E., Steg, L., & Keizer, K. (2013). It is a moral issue: The relationship between environmental self-identity, obligation-based intrinsic motivation and pro-environmental behaviour. Global environmental change, 23(5), 1258-1265.
Venhoeven, L. A., Bolderdijk, J. W., & Steg, L. (2013). Explaining the paradox: how pro-environmental behaviour can both thwart and foster well-being. Sustainability, 5(4), 1372-1386.
Vermeir, I., & Verbeke, W. (2006). Sustainable food consumption: Exploring the consumer “attitude–behavioral intention” gap. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental ethics, 19(2), 169-194.
Ville de Montréal. (2016). Compostage domestique. Retrieved from: http://ville.montreal.qc.ca/portal/page?_dad=portal&_pageid=7237,75371902&_schema=PORTAL
Werbner, P., & Davis, N. Y. (Eds.). (1999). Women, citizenship and difference. Zed Books.
Whitson, J. (2014). Foucault’s Fitbit: Governance and Gamification. The Gameful World—Approaches, Issues, Applications.
Wibeck, V., & Linnér, B. O. (2012). Public understanding of uncertainty in climate science and policy. In Global Change Management: knowledge gaps, blindspots and unknowables (pp. 55-74). Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.
Wolf, J., Brown, K., & Conway, D. (2009). Ecological citizenship and climate change: perceptions and practice. Environmental Politics, 18(4), 503-521.
Yong, A. G., & Pearce, S. (2013). A beginner’s guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 79-94.
Zhou, M. (2013). A multidimensional analysis of public environmental concern in Canada. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue canadienne de sociologie, 50(4), 453-481.
Zichermann, Gabe and Joselin Linder. (2010). Game-Based Marketing: Inspire Customer Loyalty through Rewards, Challenges, and Contests. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top