Login | Register

Effect of environmental conditions on deformation of thin composite laminate made by 4D printing


Effect of environmental conditions on deformation of thin composite laminate made by 4D printing

Alfred raju, Alan victor (2018) Effect of environmental conditions on deformation of thin composite laminate made by 4D printing. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

Text (ImageMagick conversion from text to application/pdf) (application/pdf)
Alfred raju_MASc_S2019.pdf - Accepted Version
Text (application/pdf)
Alfred raju_MASc_S2019.pdf - Accepted Version


The process of 4D printing of composites (4DPC) can make curved laminates without the need for curved molds. This is due to the use of unsymmetric laminates. Stacks of laminates with specified layup sequence (for thin composite laminates) are deposited on to flat molds using an automated fiber placement machine (AFP). On curing, the laminate takes a curved shape which can be determined by laminate theory. The factors that contribute to the curvature of the samples are the difference in coefficients of thermal contraction and shrinkage of the resin during curing.
When a thin composite laminate made by 4DPC is placed in room conditions, it is observed to open up and changes its radius of curvature over time. This is due to the absorption of moisture from the surroundings through diffusion.
This research aims to find the effect of the contribution of temperature, resin shrinkage and moisture absorption on the radius of curvature of the samples.
To analyze the contribution of difference in coefficients of thermal contraction and resin shrinkage on the curvature of the samples, the samples were first completely desorbed of moisture by desorption test and then a temperature cycling test is carried out. The results obtained from temperature cycling test are compared with the theoretical results generated using the MATLAB program. To study the effect of moisture on the thin composite samples, moisture absorption tests were performed to determine the change in radius and weight of samples over the course of time.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Alfred raju, Alan victor
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Mechanical Engineering
Date:26 July 2018
Thesis Supervisor(s):Suong Van, Hoa
ID Code:984101
Deposited On:16 Nov 2018 16:24
Last Modified:16 Nov 2018 16:24


[1] Hoa S.V, Principles of the Manufacturing of Composite Materials, 2nd ed. DEStech Publications,Inc, 2017.
[2] Hoa S.V, “Factors affecting the properties of composites made by 4D printing (moldless composites manufacturing),” Adv. Manuf. Polym. Compos. Sci., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 101–109, 2018.
[3] Website, “www.digimizer.com.” .
[4] S. G. Taghavi, “Moisture Effects on High Performance Polymer Composites,” University of Toronto, 2000.
[5] X. Wang, M. Jiang, Z. Zhou, J. Gou, and D. Hui, “3D printing of polymer matrix composites: A review and prospective,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 110, pp. 442–458, 2017.
[6] Charles W. Hull, “Apparatus for production of three-dimensional objects by stereolithography,” Patent number:4,575,330, 08-Aug-1984.
[7] M. Kamran and A. Saxena, “A Comprehensive Study on 3D Printing Technology A Comprehensive Study on 3D Printing Technology,” Moradabad Inst. Technol. Int. J. Mech. Eng., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 63–69, 2016.
[8] J. Q. Al-maliki and A. J. Q. Al-maliki, “The Processes and Technologies of 3D Printing,” Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Technol., vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 161–165, 2015.
[9] B. S. Shahi, “Advanced Manufacturing Techniques ( 3D Printing ),” no. 4, pp. 16–23, 2016.
[10] S. Tibbits, “4D printing: Multi-material shape change,” Archit. Des., vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 116–121, 2014.
[11] D. Deng and Y. Chen, “Origami-Based Self-Folding Structure Design and Fabrication Using Projection Based Stereolithography,” J. Mech. Des., vol. 137, no. 2, p. 021701, 2015.
[12] F. Momeni, S. M.Mehdi Hassani.N, X. Liu, and J. Ni, “A review of 4D printing,” Mater. Des., vol. 122, pp. 42–79, 2017.
[13] D. Raviv ,“Active printed materials for complex self-evolving deformations,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, pp. 1–8, 2014.
[14] J. J. Wu, L. M. Huang, Q. Zhao, and T. Xie, “4D Printing: History and Recent Progress,” Chinese J. Polym. Sci. (English Ed., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 563–575, 2018.
[15] S. W. Tsai and H.Hahn, Introduction to composite materials. Technomic Publishing Company, Inc, 1980.
[16] V. P. Nikolaev, E. V. Myshenkova, V. S. Pichugin, E. N. Sinitsyn, and A. N. Khoroshev, “Temperature effect on the mechanical properties of composite materials,” Inorg. Mater., vol. 50, no. 15, pp. 1511–1513, 2014.
[17] T. A. Bogetti and J. W. Gillespie, “Process-Induced Stress and Deformation in Thick-Section Thermoset Composite Laminates,” J. Compos. Mater., vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 626–660, 1992.
[18] M. W. Hyer, Stress Analysis of Fiber-reinforced Composite Materials. DEStech Publications,Inc, 2009.
[19] Barbero. E.J, Introduction to Composite Materials Design, Second. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2011.
[20] D. F. Adams and M. M. Monib, “Moisture expansion and thermal expansion coefficients of a polymer-matrix,” Fibrous Compos. Struct. Des., pp. 819–830, 1980.
[21] W. W. Wright, “The effect of diffusion of water into epoxy resins and their carbon-fibre reinforced composites,” Composites, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 201–205, 1981.
[22] C.-H. Shen and G. S. Springer, “Moisture absorption and desorption of composite materials,” Compos. Mater., vol. 10, pp. 2–20, 1976.
[23] M. Li, “Temperature and Moisture Effects on Composite Materials for Wind Turbine Blades,” Thesis,Montana State University-Bozeman, 2000.
[24] G. Twigg, A. Poursartip, and G. Fernlund, “Tool-part interaction in composites processing. Part I: Experimental investigation and analytical model,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 121–133, 2004.
[25] M. H. Shirangi and B. Michel, Moisture Sensitivity of Plastic Packages of IC Devices. 2010.
[26] Cytec Engineered, “Cycom 977-2 Epoxy Resin System -Technical Data Sheet,” Cytec - Eng. Mater., pp. 1–4, 2012.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top