Login | Register

Community Assembly and Habitat Specialization of Tropical Tree Species along Moisture Gradients in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot in India


Community Assembly and Habitat Specialization of Tropical Tree Species along Moisture Gradients in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot in India

Kodukothanahally Nagaraju, Shivaprakash (2018) Community Assembly and Habitat Specialization of Tropical Tree Species along Moisture Gradients in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot in India. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

Text (application/pdf)
Kodukothanahally_Nagaraju_PhD_S2019.pdf - Accepted Version
Restricted to Repository staff only until 1 March 2020.
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


The interactions between ecological and evolutionary processes mediated through functional traits that confer habitat specialization have been proposed to explain the spatial assembly of plant communities both across space and in different habitats. However, the scale at which these mechanisms operate and their relative importance in dominance and assembly of tree communities in different habitat types distributed across spatially-varying environmental gradients in tropical forests have been rarely tested. Here, I elucidate patterns of functional trait and phylogenetic variation and evolutionary history of key functional traits conferring habitat specialization to understand community assembly mechanisms operating within in tropical tree communities distributed across spatially varying environmental gradients and in different habitat types in Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India. The chapter 2 focuses on patterns of functional trait and phylogenetic co-variation among a community of tropical canopy trees distributed across spatially varying moisture gradient. I find that tree communities in plots that experience lower precipitation and longer duration of dry period show clustering of both functional traits and phylogenetic relationship suggesting environmental filtering play a key role in the assembly of tree communities in these forests. The chapter 3 explores the relationship between key functional traits, phylogenetic relationship and abundance of 210 co-occurring tree species distributed across contrasting extremes of seasonal flooding gradient i.e. flooded forest and terra-firme forest (non-flooded). I found that repeated evolution of key functional traits together with strong environmental filtering play a key role in determining the ecological success (dominance) and assembly of tree communities in flooded habitat. The chapter 4 focuses on climatic niche evolution and evolutionary history of flooded habitat specialization in global and endemic Myristicaceae members in the Western Ghats. I found that, repeated gain of swamp habitat specialization and associated morphological traits in global and Western Ghats Myristicaceae implying seasonal flooding gradient is an important driver of ecological speciation. I also found that local habitat specialization promotes range-wide niche evolution among sister taxa. By elucidating the pattern functional traits and phylogenetic relationship across flooding and spatially varying moisture gradient and analysis of climatic niche evolution and habitat specialization among co-occurring sister taxa, this thesis contributes to our understanding of the determinants of assembly, dominance and diversification of tropical tree communities across diverse habitat types in tropical forest biomes.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Biology
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Kodukothanahally Nagaraju, Shivaprakash
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Date:3 August 2018
Thesis Supervisor(s):Selvadurai, Dayanandan
Keywords:Western Ghats, Tropical forest, Habitat specialization, Assembly processes, Habitat filtering
ID Code:985029
Deposited By: Shivaprakash Kodukothanahally Nagaraju
Deposited On:10 Jun 2019 13:06
Last Modified:10 Jun 2019 13:06
Related URLs:


Ackerly, D.D. & Reich, P.B. (1999). Convergence and correlations among leaf size and function in seed plants: a comparative test using independent contrasts. American Journal of Botany, 86, 1272-1281.
Ackerly, D.D. (2003). Community Assembly, niche conservatism, and adaptive evolution in changing environments. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164, S165–S184.
Adler, P.B., Fajardo, A., Kleinhesselink, A.R. & Kraft, N.J.B. (2013). Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms. Ecology Letters, 16, 1294–1306.
Adler, P.B., Hillerislambers, J. & Levine, J.M. (2007). A niche for neutrality. Ecology Letters, 10, 95–104.
Allouche, O., Tsoar, A. & Kadmon, R. (2006). Assessing the accuracy of species distribution models: prevalence, kappa and the true skill statistic (TSS). Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 1223–1232.
Anacker, B.L. & Harrison, S.P. (2012). Historical and ecological controls on phylogenetic diversity in californian plant communities. The American Naturalist, 180, 257–269.
Andersen, K.M., Endara, M.J., Turner, B.L. & Dalling, J.W. (2012). Trait-based community assembly of understory palms along a soil nutrient gradient in a lower montane tropical forest. Oecologia, 168, 519–531.
Asner, G.P., Anderson, C.B., Martin, R.E., Knapp, D.E., Tupayachi, R., Sinca, F., et al. (2014). Landscape-scale changes in forest structure and functional traits along an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient. Biogeosciences, 11, 843–856.
Baldeck, C.A., Kembel, S.W., Harms, K.E., Yavitt, J.B., John, R., Turner, B.L., et al. (2013). A taxonomic comparison of local habitat niches of tropical trees. Oecologia, 173, 1491–1498.
Baraloto, C., Hardy, O.J., Paine, C.E.T., Dexter, K.G., Cruaud, C., Dunning, L.T., et al. (2012). Using functional traits and phylogenetic trees to examine the assembly of tropical tree communities. Journal of Ecology, 100, 690–701.
Baraloto, C., Morneau, F., Bonal, D., Blanc, L. & Ferry, B. (2007). Seasonal water stress tolerance and habitat associations within four neotropical tree genera. Ecology, 88, 478–489.
Bazzaz, F.A. (1991). Habitat Selection in Plants. The American Naturalist, 137, S116–S130.
Bell, C.D., Soltis, D.E. & Soltis, P.S. (2010). The age and diversification of the angiosperms American Journal of Botany, 97, 1296–1303.
Bell, C.D., Soltis, D.E. & Soltis, P.S. (2010). The age and diversification of the angiosperms re-revisited. American Journal of Botany, 97, 1296–1303.
Bell, G. (2001). Neutral macroecology. Science, 293, 2413–2418.
Blanchet, F., Legendre, P. & Borcard, D. (2008). Forward selection of explanatory variables. Ecology, 89, 2623-2632.
Blomberg, S.P., Garland, T. & Ives, A.R. (2003). Testing for phylogenetic signal in comparative data: behavioral traits are more labile. Evolution, 57, 717–745.
Blonder, B., Lamanna, C., Violle, C. & Enquist, B.J. (2014). Then-dimensional hypervolume. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 595–609.
Bollback, J. (2006). SIMMAP: stochastic character mapping of discrete traits on phylogenies. BMC Bioinformatics, 7, 88.
Bowman, D. & Prior, L. (2005). Why do evergreen trees dominate the Australian seasonal tropics? Australian Journal of Botany, 53, 379–399.
Bremner, J., Frid, C.L.J. & Rogers, S.I. (2003). Assessing marine ecosystem health: the long-term effects of fishing on functional biodiversity in north sea benthos. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 6, 131–137.
Brown, C., Burslem, D.F.R.P., Illian, J.B., Bao, L., Brockelman, W., Cao, M., et al. (2013). Multispecies coexistence of trees in tropical forests: spatial signals of topographic niche differentiation increase with environmental heterogeneity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280, 20130502.
Bruno, J.F., Stachowicz, J.J. & Bertness, M.D. (2003). Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18, 119–125.
Burns, J.H. & Strauss, S.Y. (2011). More closely related species are more ecologically similar in an experimental test. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 5302–5307.
Cadotte, M.W. & Tucker, C.M. (2017). Should environmental filtering be abandoned? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 32, 429–437.
Cadotte, M.W., Carscadden, K. & Mirotchnick, N. (2011). Beyond species: functional diversity and the maintenance of ecological processes and services. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 1079–1087.
Cadotte, M.W., Davies, T.J., Regetz, J., Kembel, S.W., Cleland, E. & Oakley, T.H. (2010). Phylogenetic diversity metrics for ecological communities: integrating species richness, abundance and evolutionary history. Ecology Letters, 13, 96–105.
Cadotte, M.W., Hamilton, M.A. & Murray, B.R. (2009). Phylogenetic relatedness and plant invader success across two spatial scales. Diversity and Distributions, 15, 481–488.
Cahill, J.F., Kembel, S.W., Lamb, E.G. & Keddy, P.A. (2008). Does phylogenetic relatedness influence the strength of competition among vascular plants? Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 10, 41–50.
Cavender-Bares, J., Ackerly, D.D., Baum, D.A. & Bazzaz, F.A. (2004). Phylogenetic overdispersion in floridian oak communities. The American Naturalist, 163, 823–843.
Cavender-Bares, J., Kozak, K.H., Fine, P.V.A. & Kembel, S.W. (2009). The merging of community ecology and phylogenetic biology. Ecology Letters, 12, 693–715.
Chabot, B.F. & Hicks, D.J. (1982). The ecology of leaf life spans. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 13, 229–259.
Champely, S. & Chessel, D. (2002). Measuring biological diversity using Euclidean metrics. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 9, 167–177.
Chase, J.M. & Leibold, M.A. (2012). Ecological niches linking classical and contemporary approaches. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Chave, J. (2004) Neutral theory and community ecology. Ecology Letters, 7, 241–253.
Chave, J. (2008). Spatial variation in tree species composition across tropical forests: pattern and process. In: Tropical forest community ecology (Carson, W. P. & Schnitzer, S. A. (eds)). Wiley Blackwell, pp 11-30.
Chave, J., Chust, G. & Thébaud, C. (2008). The importance of phylogenetic structure in biodiversity studies. In: Storch, D. et al. (eds), Scaling biodiversity. Cambridge Univ. Press, 151-167.
Chave, J., Coomes, D., Jansen, S., Lewis, S.L., Swenson, N.G. & Zanne, A.E. (2009). Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters, 12(4), 351-366.
Chesson, P. (2000). Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 343–366.
Chetana, H. & Ganesh, T. (2013). Reconciling natural history and species ecology: myristica beddomei (myristicaceae) in the Western Ghats, India. Tropical Conservation Science, 6, 663–673.
Chevan, A. & Sutherland, M. (1991). Hierarchical partitioning. American Statistics, 45, 90–96.
Chisholm, R.A. & Pacala, S.W. (2010). Niche and neutral models predict asymptotically equivalent species abundance distributions in high-diversity ecological communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 15821–15825.
Christenhusz, M.J. & Byng, J.W. (2016). The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa, 261, 201–217.
CIPRES. (2017). Cipres Science Gateway | Login. Available at: http://www.phylo.org/. Last accessed 10 April 2017.
Clark, D.B., Clark, D.A. & Read, J.M. (1998). Edaphic variation and the mesoscale distribution of tree species in a neotropical rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 86, 101–112.
Clark, J.S. (2008). Beyond neutral science. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24, 8–15.
Clark, J.S. (2010). Individuals and the variation needed for high species diversity in forest trees. Science, 327, 1129–1132.
Colwell, R. K. and Winkler, D. W. 1984. A null model for null models in biogeography. In: Strong, D. et al. (eds), Ecological communities: conceptual issues and the evidence. Princeton University Press, pp. 344 – 359
Condit, R., Ashton, P.S., Baker, P., Bunyavejchewin, S., Gunatilleke, S., Gunatilleke, N., et al. (2000). Spatial patterns in the distribution of tropical tree species. Science, 288, 1414–1418.
Condit, R., Pitman, N.C.A., Leigh, E.G., Chave, J., Terborgh, J., Foster, R.B., et al. (2002). Beta-Diversity in tropical forest trees. Science, 295, 666–669.
Connor, E.F. & Simberloff, D. (1979). The assembly of species communities - chance or competition. Ecology, 60, 1132–1140.
Cornwell, W. K. & Ackerly, D.D. (2009). Community assembly and shifts in plant trait distributions across an environmental gradient in coastal California. Ecological Monographs, 79, 109–126.
Cornwell, W.K. & Ackerly, D.D. (2010). A link between plant traits and abundance: evidence from coastal California woody plants. Journal of Ecology, 98, 814–821.
Cornwell, W.K., Schwilk, D.W. & Ackerly, D.D. (2006). A trait-based test for habitat filtering: convex hull volume. Ecology, 87, 1465–1471.
Crisp, M.D. & Cook, L.G. (2012). Phylogenetic niche conservatism: what are the underlying evolutionary and ecological causes? New Phytologist, 196, 681–694.
Crisp, M.D. & Cook, L.G. (2012). Phylogenetic niche conservatism: what are the underlying evolutionary and ecological causes? New Phytologist, 196, 681–694.
Currie, D.J. (1991). Energy and large-scale patterns of animal- and plant-species richness. American Naturalist, 137, 27–49.
Daniels, R.J.R., Gadgil, M. & Joshi, N.V. (1995). Impact of human extraction on tropical humid forests in the Western Ghats Uttara Kannada, South India. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 32, 866–874.
Dansereau, P. (1951). Description and recording of vegetation upon a structural basis. Ecology, 32, 172–229.
Darriba, D., Taboada, G.L., Doallo, R. & Posada, D. (2012). jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods, 9, 772–772.
Darwin, C. & Mayr, E. (1859). On the origin of species. John Murray Press, London, UK.
Davidar, P., Rajagopal, B., Mohandass, D., Puyravaud, J.P., Condit, R., Wright, S.J., et al. (2007). The effect of climatic gradients, topographic variation and species traits on the beta diversity of rain forest trees. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 510–518.
Davies, S.J., Palmiotto, P.A., Ashton, P.S., Lee, H.S. & Lafrankie, J.V. (1998). Comparative ecology of 11 sympatric species of Macaranga in Borneo: tree distribution in relation to horizontal and vertical resource heterogeneity. Journal of Ecology, 86, 662–673.
de-Wilde, W. (2014). Flora Malesiana. Series I - Seed Plants, Volume 14. Myristicaceae. Advanced Books. Available at: http://ab.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=1141. Last accessed 13 June 2018.
Diamond, J.M. & Gilpin, M.E. (1982). Examination of the null model of Connor and Simberloff for species co-occurrences on islands. Oecologia, 52, 64–74.
Diamond, J.M. (1975). Assembly of species communities. In: Ecology and Evolution of Communities. (eds. Cody, M.L. & Diamond, J.M.). The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, pp. 342–444.
Dias, L.S. & Ganhão, E. (2012). Extending the range for accurate estimation of seed volume from incomplete linear dimension data. Seed Science and Technology, 40, 129-133.
Díaz, S., Cabido, M. & Casanoves F (1999) Functional implications of trait-environment linkages in plant communities. In: Ecological assembly rules: Perspectives, advances, retreat. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, pp. 338–362.
Díaz, S., Purvis, A., Cornelissen, J.H.C., Mace, G.M., Donoghue, M.J., Ewers, R.M., et al. (2013). Functional traits, the phylogeny of function, and ecosystem service vulnerability. Ecology and Evolution, 3, 2958–2975.
Dilcher, D.L. & Crane, P.R. (1984). Archaenthus: An early angiosperm from the cenomanian of the western interior of North America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 71, 351–383.
Ding, Y., Zang, R., Letcher, S.G., Liu, S. & He, F. (2012). Disturbance regime changes the trait distribution, phylogenetic structure and community assembly of tropical rain forests. Oikos, 121, 1263–1270.
Directory of Cities and Towns in World. (2017). Alphabetical listing of Places in South Africa that start with X. Available at: http://www.fallingrain.com/world. Last accessed 13 May 2017.
Dornelas, M., Connolly, S.R. & Hughes, T.P. (2006). Coral reef diversity refutes the neutral theory of biodiversity. Nature, 443, 598–598.
Doyle, J.A., Sauquet, H., Scharaschkin, T. & Thomas, A.L. (2004). Phylogeny, molecular and fossil dating, and biogeographic history of Annonaceae and Myristicaceae (Magnoliales). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 165, 535–567.
Drummond, A. J. & Rambaut, A. (2007). BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis sampling trees. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7, 214.
Drummond, A.J., Ho, S.Y.W., Phillips, M.J. & Rambaut, A. (2006). Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence. PLoS Biology, 4, e88.
Dumay, O., Tari, P.S., Tomasini, J.A. & Mouillot, D. (2004). Functional groups of lagoon fish species in Languedoc Roussillon, southern France. Journal of Fish Biology, 64, 970–983.
Edgar, R.C. (2004). MUSCLE: Multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research 32(5), 1792–1797.
Elias, M., Gompert, Z., Jiggins, C. & Willmott, K. (2008). Mutualistic Interactions Drive Ecological Niche Convergence in a Diverse Butterfly Community. PLoS Biology, 6, e300.
Elton, C. (1946). Competition and the Structure of Ecological Communities. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 15, 54–68.
Emery, N.C., Forrestel, E.J., Jui, G., Park, M.S., Baldwin, B.G. & Ackerly, D.D. (2012). Niche evolution across spatial scales: climate and habitat specialization in California Lasthenia (Asteraceae). Ecology, 93, S151–S166.
Engelbrecht, B.M.J., Comita, L.S., Condit, R., Kursar, T.A., Tyree, M.T., Turner, B.L. & Hubbell, S.P. (2007). Drought sensitivity shapes species dis-tribution patterns in tropical forests. Nature, 447, 80–82.
Etienne, R.S. & Alonso, D. (2006). Neutral community theory: how stochasticity and dispersal-limitation can explain species coexistence. Journal of Statistical Physics, 128, 485–510.
Etienne, R.S. (2007). A neutral sampling formula for multiple samples and an ‘exact’ test of neutrality. Ecology Letters, 10, 608–618.
Evans, M.E.K., Smith, S.A., Flynn, R.S. & Donoghue, M.J. (2009). Climate, niche evolution, and diversification of the “Bird-cage” evening primroses (Oenothera, Sections Anogra and Kleinia). The American Naturalist, 173, 225–240.
Fauset, S., Johnson, M.O., Gloor, M., Baker, T.R., Abel Monteagudo, M., Brienen, R.J.W., et al. (2015) Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling. Nature Communications. 6, 6857.
Felsenstein, J. (1995). Phylogenies and the comparative method. American Naturalist, 125, 1–15.
Fine, P.V.A. & Kembel, S.W. (2011). Phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic turnover across space and edaphic gradients in western Amazonian tree communities. Ecography, 34, 552–565.
Fine, P.V.A. (2004). Herbivores promote habitat specialization of trees in amazonian forests. Science, 305, 663–665.
Fine, P.V.A., Daly, D.C., Muñoz, G.V., Mesones, I. & Cameron, K.M. (2005). The contribution of edaphic heterogeneity to the evolution and diversity of Burseraceae trees in the Western Amazon. Evolution, 59, 1464–1478.
Forest, F., Grenyer, R., Rouget, M., Davies, T.J., Cowling, R.M., Faith, D.P., et al. (2007). Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots. Nature, 445, 757–760.
Fortunel, C., Paine, C. T. E., Fine, P. V. A., Kraft, N. J. B., & Baraloto, C. (2014). Environmental factors predict community functional composition in forests across Amazonia. Journal of Ecology, 102, 145–155.
Fritz, S. A. & Purvis, A. (2010). Selectivity in mammalian extinction risk and threat types: a new measure of phylogenetic signal strength in binary traits. Conservation Biology, 24, 1042–1051.
Gamble, J.S. & Fischer, C.E.C. (1915). Flora of the presidency of Madras. Adlard, London.
Gause, G.F. (1934) The Struggle for Existence. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. pp. 163.
Ge, J. & Xie, Z. (2017). Geographical and climatic gradients of evergreen versus deciduous broad-leaved tree species in subtropical China: Implications for the definition of the mixed forest. Ecology and Evolution, 7, 3636–3644.
Gentry, A.H. (1986). Endemism in tropical versus temperate plant communities. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.
Gentry, A.H. (1988). Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75, 1–34.
Gerhold, P., Cahill, J.F., Winter, M., Bartish, I.V. & Prinzing, A. (2015). Phylogenetic patterns are not proxies of community assembly mechanisms (they are far better). Functional Ecology, 29, 600–614.
Gilbert, B. & Lechowicz, M.J. (2004). Neutrality, niches, and dispersal in a temperate forest understory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 7651–7656.
Gilbert, B., Laurance, W.F., Jr., E.G.L. & Nascimento, H.E.M. (2006). Can neutral theory predict the responses of Amazonian tree communities to forest fragmentation? The American Naturalist, 168, 304–317.
Gilbert, G.S., Foster, R.B. & Hubbell, S.P. (1994). Density and distance-to-adult effects of a canker disease of trees in a moist tropical forest. Oecologia, 98, 100–108.
Givnish, T.J. (2002). Adaptive significance of evergreen vs. deciduous leaves: Solving the triple paradox. Silva Fennica, 36, 703–743.
Gleason, H.A. (1917). The structure and development of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 44(10), 463-481.
González-Caro, S., Umaña, M., Álvarez, E., Stevenson, P. & Swenson, N.G. (2014). Phylogenetic alpha and beta diversity in tropical tree assemblages along regional-scale environmental gradients in northwest South America. Journal of Plant Ecology, 7, 145-153.
Gotelli, N.J. & Graves, G.R. (1996). Null Models in Ecology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, United States
Gotelli, N.J. & Mcgill, B.J. (2006). Null versus neutral models: whats the difference? Ecography, 29, 793–800.
Gotelli, N.J. (2000). Null model analysis of species co-ocurrence patterns. Ecology, 81, 2606–2621.
Graham, C.H., Ron, S.R., Santos, J.C., Schneider, C.J. & Moritz, C. (2004). Integrating phylogenetics and environmental niche models to explore speciation mechanisms in dendrobatid frogs. Evolution, 58, 1781–1793.
Grant, P.R. & Abbott, I. (1980). Interspecific competition, island biogeography and null hypotheses. Evolution, 34, 332–341.
Gravel, D., Canham, C.D., Beaudet, M. & Messier, C. (2006). Reconciling niche and neutrality: the continuum hypothesis. Ecology Letters, 9, 399–409.
Gravel, D., Guichard, F. & Hochberg, M.E. (2011). Species coexistence in a variable world. Ecology Letters, 14, 828–839.
Grime, P.J. (2006). Trait convergence and trait divergence in herbaceous plant communities: mechanisms and consequences. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17, 255–260.
Hacke, U.G., Sperry, J.S., Pockman, W.T., Davis, S.D. & McCulloh, K.A. (2001). Trends in wood density and structure are linked to prevention of xylem implosion by negative pressure. Oecologia, 126, 457–461.
Haegeman, B. & Etienne, R.S. (2011). Independent species in independent niches behave neutrally. Oikos, 120, 961–963.
Hardin, G. (1960). The competitive exclusion principle. Science, 131, 1292–1297.
Hardy, O.J. & Senterre, B. (2007). Characterizing the phylogenetic structure of communities by an additive partitioning of phylogenetic diversity. Journal of Ecology, 95, 493–506.
Hardy, O.J., Couteron, P., Munoz, F., Ramesh, B.R. & Pélissier, R. (2012). Phylogenetic turnover in tropical tree communities: impact of environmental filtering, biogeography and mesoclimatic niche conservatism. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 1007–1016.
Harms, K.E., Condit, R., Hubbell, S.P. & Foster, R.B. (2001). Habitat associations of trees and shrubs in a 50-ha neotropical forest plot. Journal of Ecology, 89, 947–959.
Harrison, S. & Grace, J.B. (2007). Biogeographic affinity helps explain productivity‐richness relationships at regional and local scales. The American Naturalist, 170(S2), S5-S15.
Helmus, M.R., Bland, T.J., Williams, C.K. & Ives, A.R. (2007). Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity. The American Naturalist, 169, E68–E83.
Helmus, M.R., Keller, W. (Bill), Paterson, M.J., Yan, N.D., Cannon, C.H. & Rusak, J.A. (2010). Communities contain closely related species during ecosystem disturbance. Ecology Letters, 13, 162–174.
Herault, B. (2007). Reconciling niche and neutrality through the emergent group approach. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 9, 71–78.
Hijmans, R.J., Cameron, S.E., Parra, J.L., Jones, P.G. & Jarvis, A. (2005). Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1965–1978.
Hillerislambers, J., Adler, P., Harpole, W., Levine, J. & Mayfield, M. (2012). Rethinking community assembly through the lens of coexistence theory. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 43, 227–248.
Hooper, D.U., Chapin, F.S., Ewel, J.J., Hector, A., Inchausti, P., Lavorel, S., et al. (2005). Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs, 75, 3–35.
Hu, J., Broennimann, O., Guisan, A., Wang, B., Huang, Y. & Jiang, J. (2016). Niche conservatism in Gynandropaa frogs on the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Scientific Reports, 6, 32624.
Hua, X. & Wiens, J.J. (2013). How does climate influence speciation? The American Naturalist, 182, 1–12.
Hubbell, S.P. (1979). Tree dispersion, abundance, and diversity in a tropical dry forest. Science, 203, 1299–1309
Hubbell, S.P. (2001). The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton Univ. Press.
Hubbell, S.P. (2005). Neutral theory in community ecology and the hypothesis of functional equivalence. Functional Ecology, 19, 166–172.
Hubbell, S.P. (2008). Approaching ecological complexity from the perspective of symmetric neutral theory. In: Tropical forest community ecology (Carson, W. P. & Schnitzer, S. A. (eds)). Wiley-Blackwell, 143-159.
Huelsenbeck, J. P., Nielsen, R. & Bollback, J.P. (2003). Stochastic mapping of morphological characters. Systematic Biology, 52, 131 – 158.
Jabot, F. & Chave, J. (2011). Analyzing tropical forest tree species abundance distributions using a nonneutral model and through approximate Bayesian inference. The American Naturalist, 178, E37–E47.
Jaime, R., Alcántara, J.M., Bastida, J.M. & Rey, P.J. (2015). Complex patterns of environmental niche evolution in Iberian columbines (genus Aquilegia, Ranunculaceae). Journal of Plant Ecology, 8, 457–467.
Janzen, D.H. (1970). Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. The American Naturalist, 104, 501–528.
Jiménez-Valverde, A. & Lobo, J.M. (2007). Threshold criteria for conversion of probability of species presence to either–or presence–absence. Acta Oecologica, 31, 361–369.
Joseph, S., Anitha, K., Srivastava, V., et al. (2012). Rainfall and elevation influence the local-scale distribution of tree community in the southern region of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot (India). International Journal of Forestry Research, 2012, 576502.
Katabuchi, M., Kurokawa, H., Davies, S.J., Tan, S. & Nakashizuka, T. (2012). Soil resource availability shapes community trait structure in a species-rich dipterocarp forest. Journal of Ecology, 100, 643–651.
Keddy, P.A. (1992). Assembly and response rules – 2 goals for predictive community ecology. Journal of Vegetation Science, 3, 157–164.
Kembel, S.W. & Hubbell, S.P. (2006). The phylogenetic structure of a neotropical forest tree community. Ecology, 87, 586-99.
Kembel, S.W., Cowan, P.D., Helmus, M.R., Cornwell, W.K., Morlon, H., Ackerly, D.D., et al. (2010). Picante: R tools for integrating phylogenies and ecology. Bioinformatics, 26, 1463–1464.
Keshavachandra, K. & Krishnakumar, G. (2016). Seed germination studies on Gymnacranthera canarica (King) Warb. - a Vulnerable tree species of a highly threatened Myristica swamp ecosystem. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 8, 9009.
Kikuzawa, K., Onoda, Y., Wright, I.J. & Reich, P.B. (2013). Mechanisms underlying global temperature-related patterns in leaf longevity. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22, 982–993.
Knapp, S., Kühn, I., Schweiger, O. & Klotz, S. (2008). Challenging urban species diversity: contrasting phylogenetic patterns across plant functional groups in Germany. Ecology Letters, 11, 1054–1064.
Kneitel, J.M. & Chase, J.M. (2004). Trade-offs in community ecology: linking spatial scales and species coexistence. Ecology Letters, 7, 69–80.
Knouft, J.H., Losos, J.B., Glor, R.E. & Kolbe, J.J. (2006). Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of the niche in lizards of The Anolis sagrei group. Ecology, 87, S29–S38.
Kozak, K.H. & Wiens, J.J. (2006). Does niche conservatism promote speciation? a case study in North American Salamanders. Evolution, 60, 2604.
Kozak, K.H., Graham, C.H. & Wiens, J.J. (2008). Integrating GIS-based environmental data into evolutionary biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 141–148.
Kozlowski, T.T. (1984). Plant responses to flooding of soil. BioScience, 34, 162–167.
Kraft, N. J. B., Valencia, R & Ackerly, D. (2008). Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest. Science, 322, 580–582.
Kraft, N.J.B. & Ackerly, D.D. (2010). Functional trait and phylogenetic tests of community assembly across spatial scales in an Amazonian forest. Ecological Monograph, 80, 401–422.
Kraft, N.J.B., Adler, P.B., Godoy, O., James, E.C., Fuller, S. & Levine, J.M. (2015). Community assembly, coexistence and the environmental filtering metaphor. Functional Ecology, 29, 592–599.
Kraft, N.J.B., Cornwell, Webb & Ackerly. (2007). Trait evolution, community assembly, and the phylogenetic structure of ecological communities. The American Naturalist, 170, 271–283.
Krishna, S. & Somanathan, H. (2016). Spatiotemporal strategies that facilitate recruitment in a habitat specialist tree species. AoB Plants, 8, plw033.
Krishnadas, M., Kumar, A. & Comita, L.S. (2016). Environmental gradients structure tropical tree assemblages at the regional scale. Journal of Vegitation Science, 27, 1117–1128.
Krishnamoorthy, K. (1960). Myristica swamps in the evergreen forests of Travancore. In: Tropical Moist Evergreen Forest Symposium. Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.
Kubota, Y., Kusumoto, B., Shiono, T. & Ulrich, W. (2018). Environmental filters shaping angiosperm tree assembly along climatic and geographic gradients. Journal of Vegetation Science.
Kumar, C.A., Babu, K.P. & Krishnan, P.N. (n.d.). Seed storage and viability of Myristica malabarica Lam. an endemic species of Southern Western Ghats (India). Seed Science and Technology, 30, 651–657.
Kumaran, K., Limaye, R.B., Punekar, S.A., Rajaguru, S., Joshi, S. & Karlekar, S. (2013). Vegetation response to South Asian monsoon variations in Konkan, western India during the Late Quaternary: Evidence from fluvio-lacustrine archives. Quaternary International, 286, 3–18.
Kumaran, N.K.P., Padmalal, D., Nair, M.K., Limaye, R.B., Guleria, J.S., Srivastava, R., et al. (2014). Vegetation response and landscape dynamics of indian summer monsoon variations during Holocene: An eco-geomorphological appraisal of tropical evergreen forest subfossil logs. PLoS ONE, 9(4), 93596.
Kunstler, G., Lavergne, S., Courbaud, B., Thuiller, W., Vieilledent, G., Zimmermann, N.E., et al. (2012). Competitive interactions between forest trees are driven by species trait hierarchy, not phylogenetic or functional similarity: implications for forest community assembly. Ecology Letters, 15, 831–840.
Lavin, M. (2006). Floristic and geographical stability of discontinuous seasonally dry tropical forests explains patterns of plant phylogeny and endemism. In: Neotropical savannas and seasonally dry forests: plant diversity, biogeography, and conservation, systematics association, Special Volume Series 69 (Pennington, T., Lewis, G. & Ratter, J.A, Boca Raton, F.L (eds.)). CRC-Taylor and Francis, pp 433—47.
Lavin, M., Schrire, B., Lewis, G., Pennington, R., Delgado–Salinas, A., Thulin, M. & Wojciechowski, M.F. (2004). Metacommunity process rather than continental tectonic history better explains geographically structured phylogenies in legumes. Philosophical Transaction of Royal Society B, 359, 1509-1522.
Lavin, M., Wojciechowski, M., Gasson, P., Hughes, C. & Wheeler, E. (2003). Phylogeny of robinioid legumes (Fabaceae) revisited: Coursetia and Gliricidia recircumscribed, and a biogeographical appraisal of the Caribbean endemics. Systematic Botany, 28, 387-409.
Lavorel, S. & Garnier, E. (2002). Predicting changes in community composition and ecosystem functioning from plant traits: revisiting the Holy Grail. Functional Ecology, 16, 545–556.
Lebrija-Trejos, E., Pérez-García, E.A., Meave, J.A., Bongers, F. & Poorter, L. (2010). Functional traits and environmental filtering drive community assembly in a species-rich tropical system. Ecology, 91, 386–398.
Lefcheck, J.S. (2015). The use of functional traits to elucidate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. thesis. The faculty of the school of marine science. The college of William & Mary in Virginia.
Lefcheck, J.S., Bastazini, V.A.G. & Griffin, J.N. (2015). Choosing and using multiple traits in functional diversity research. Environmental Conservation, 42, 104–107.
Leibold, M.A. & Mcpeek, M.A. (2006). Coexistence of the niche and neutral perspectives in community ecology. Ecology, 87, 1399–1410.
Lemoine, N.P., Shue, J., Verrico, B., Erickson, D., Kress, W.J. & Parker, J.D. (2015). Phylogenetic relatedness and leaf functional traits, not introduced status, influence community assembly. Ecology, 96, 2605–2612.
Lepsˇ, J., de Bello, F., Lavorel, S. & Berman, S. (2006). Quantifying and interpreting functional diversity of naturalcommunities: practical considerations matter. Preslia, 78, 481–501.
Lessard, J.-P., Belmaker, J., Myers, J.A., Chase, J.M. & Rahbek, C. (2012). Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27, 600–607.
Letten, A.D. & Cornwell, W.K. (2015). Trees, branches and (square) roots: why evolutionary relatedness is not linearly related to functional distance. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 439–444.
Lichstein, J.W. (2007). Multiple regression on distance matrices: a multivariate spatial analysis tool. Plant Ecology, 188, 117–131.
Liu, C., Berry, P.M., Dawson, T.P. & Pearson, R.G. (2005). Selecting thresholds of occurrence in the prediction of species distributions. Ecography, 28, 385–393.
Liu, C., White, M. & Newell, G. (2010). Measuring and comparing the accuracy of species distribution models with presence-absence data. Ecography, 34, 232–243.
Liu, X., Swenson, N.G., Wright, S.J., Zhang, L., Song, K., Du, Y., et al. (2012). Covariation in plant functional traits and soil fertility within two species-rich forests. PLoS ONE, 7, 519–551.
Lobo, J.M., Jiménez-Valverde, A. & Real, R. (2008). AUC: a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17, 145–151.
Lohbeck, M., Lebrija-Trejos, E., Martínez-Ramos, M., Meave, J.A., Poorter, L. & Bongers, F. (2015). Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession. PLoS One, 10, e0123741.
Lopez, O.R. & Kursar, T.A. (2003). Does flood tolerance explain tree species distribution in tropical seasonally flooded habitats? Oecologia, 136, 193–204.
Losos, J.B & Mahler, L.D. (2010). “Adaptive Radiation: The Interaction of Ecological Opportunity, Adaptation, and Speciation.” In: Evolution Since Darwin: The First 150 Years (Bell, M.A; Futuyma, D.J; Eanes, W.F & Levinton, J.S (eds.)). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc. pp 381-420.
Losos, J.B. (2008). Phylogenetic niche conservatism, phylogenetic signal and the relationship between phylogenetic relatedness and ecological similarity among species. Ecology Letters, 11, 995–1003.
Lowe, W.H. & Mcpeek, M.A. (2014). Is dispersal neutral? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29, 444–450.
Lu, X., Wang, Y.-P., Wright, I.J., Reich, P.B., Shi, Z. & Dai, Y. (2017). Incorporation of plant traits in a land surface model helps explain the global biogeographical distribution of major forest functional types. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 26, 304–317.
Luo, Y.-H., Liu, J., Tan, S.-L., Cadotte, M.W., Wang, Y.-H., Xu, K., et al. (2016). Trait-based community assembly along an elevational gradient in subalpine forests: quantifying the roles of environmental factors in inter- and intraspecific variability. Plos One, 11(5), e0155749.
Macarthur, R. & Levins, R. (1964). competition, habitat selection, and character displacement in a patchy environment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 51, 1207–1210.
MacArthur, R. & Levins, R. (1967). The limiting similarity, convergence, and divergence of coexisting species. American Naturalist, 101, 377–385.
MacArthur, R.H. & Wilson, E.O. (1967). The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Machac, A., Janda, M., Dunn, R.R. & Sanders, N.J. (2011). Elevational gradients in phylogenetic structure of ant communities reveal the interplay of biotic and abiotic constraints on diversity. Ecography, 34, 364–371.
Maddison, W.P. & Maddison, D.R. (2011). Mesquite: A modular system for evolutionary analysis. Mesquite Project. Available at: http://mesquiteproject.org/. Last accessed 7 May 2017.
Magurran, A.E. & McGill, B.J. (2011). Biological diversity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Maire, V., Gross, N., Börger, L., Proulx, R., Wirth, C., Pontes, L.D.S., et al. (2012). Habitat filtering and niche differentiation jointly explain species relative abundance within grassland communities along fertility and disturbance gradients. New Phytologist, 196, 497–509.
Mark Pagel - Home Page. Available at: http://www.evolution.rdg.ac.uk/BayesTraitsV3.0.1/BayesTraitsV3.0.1.html. Last accessed 10 May 2017.
Mason, N.W., Bello, F.D., Mouillot, D., Pavoine, S. & Dray, S. (2013). A guide for using functional diversity indices to reveal changes in assembly processes along ecological gradients. Journal of Vegetation Science, 24, 794–806.
Mason, N.W.H., Mouillot, D., Lee, W.G. & Wilson, J.B. (2005). Functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence: the primary components of functional diversity. Oikos, 111, 112–118.
Mason, S.J. & Graham, N.E. (2002). Areas beneath the relative operating characteristics (ROC) and relative operating levels (ROL) curves: Statistical significance and interpretation. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 128, 2145–2166.
Matthews, T.J., Borges, P.A.V. & Whittaker, R.J. (2014). Multimodal species abundance distributions: a deconstruction approach reveals the processes behind the pattern. Oikos, 123, 533–544.
Mayfield, M.M. & Levine, J.M. (2010). Opposing effects of competitive exclusion on the phylogenetic structure of communities. Ecology Letters, 13, 1085–1093.
Mccormack, J.E., Zellmer, A.J. & Knowles, L.L. (2010). Does niche divergence accompany allopatric divergence inaphelocomajays as predicted under ecological speciation?: insights from tests with niche models. Evolution, 64, 1231–1244.
McCullagh, P. & Nelder, J. (1989). Generalized linear models. Springer US, pp 261
Mcgill, B.J. (2003). A test of the unified neutral theory of biodiversity. Nature, 422, 881–885.
McGill, B.J., Enquist, B.J., Weiher, E. & Westoby, M. (2006). Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 178–185.
McGill, B.J., Etienne, R.S., Gray, J.S., Alonso, D., Anderson, M.J., Benecha, H.K., et al. (2007). Species abundance distributions: moving beyond single prediction theories to integration within an ecological framework. Ecology Letters, 10, 995–1015.
McGill, B.J., Hadly, E.A. &Maurer, B.A. (2005). Community inertia of quaternary small mammal assemblages in North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 16701–16706.
Mcgill, B.J., Maurer, B.A. & Weiser, M.D. (2006). Empirical evaluation of neutral theory. Ecology, 87, 1411–1423.
Miller, M., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2011). The CIPRES science gateway: a community resource for phylogenetic analyses. In: Proceedings of the 2011 TeraGrid Conference: Extreme Digital Discovery. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: ACM, 1–8.
Mittelbach, G.G. (2012). Community ecology. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Sunderland, MA.
Monk, C.D. (1966). An ecological significance of ever greenness. Ecology, 47, 504–505.
Morlon, H., White, E.P., Etienne, R.S., Green, J.L., Ostling, A., Alonso, D., et al. (2009). Taking species abundance distributions beyond individuals. Ecology Letters, 12, 488–501.
Mouchet, M.A., Villéger, S., Mason, N.W.H. & Mouillot, D. (2010). Functional diversity measures: an overview of their redundancy and their ability to discriminate community assembly rules. Functional Ecology, 24, 867–876.
Mouillot, D., Villéger, S., Scherer-Lorenzen, M. & Mason, N.W.H. (2011). Functional structure of biological communities predicts ecosystem multifunctionality. PLoS ONE, 6, e17476.
Moulton, M.P. & Pimm, S.L. (1987). Morphological assortment in introduced Hawaiian passerines. Evolutionary Ecology, 1, 113–124.
Mouquet, N., Devictor, V., Meynard, C.N., Munoz, F., Bersier, L.-F., Chave, J., et al. (2012). Ecophylogenetics: advances and perspectives. Biological Reviews, 87, 769–785.
Nair, P.V., Ramachandran, K.K., Swarupanandan, K., Thomas, T.P. (2007). Mapping biodiversity of the Myristica swamps in Southern Kerala. Report submitted to MoEF (The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India). pp 255.
Nemergut, D.R., Schmidt, S.K., Fukami, T., Oneill, S.P., Bilinski, T.M., Stanish, L.F., et al. (2013). Patterns and processes of microbial community assembly. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 77, 342–356.
Nobel, I.. R. & Slatyer, R.O., Post-fire succession of plants in Mediterranean ecosystems. In: Proceedings of the symposium on the environmental consequences of fire and fuel management in Mediterranean ecosystems (Mooney, H.A. & Conrad, C.E (eds.)). California: Palo Alto; 1977, p. 27–36.
Norden, N., Chazdon, R.L., Chao, A., Jiang, Y.-H. & Vílchez-Alvarado, B. (2009). Resilience of tropical rain forests: tree community reassembly in secondary forests. Ecology Letters, 12, 385–394.
Nosil, P., Harmon, L.J. & Seehausen, O. (2009). Ecological explanations for (incomplete) speciation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24, 145–156.
O’Brien, E.M. (2006). Biological relativity to water-energy dynamics. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1868–1888.
Oliveira, A.A.D., Vicentini, A., Chave, J., Castanho, C.D.T., Davies, S.J., Martini, A.M.Z., et al. (2014). Habitat specialization and phylogenetic structure of tree species in a coastal Brazilian white-sand forest. Journal of Plant Ecology, 7, 134–144.
Orme, D., Ereckleton, R., Thomas, G., Petzoldt, T., Fritz, S., N, I. & Pearse, W. (2012). Caper: comparative analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R. See http://caper.r forge.r-project.org.
Pagel & Meade. (2006). Bayesian analysis of correlated evolution of discrete characters by reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo. The American Naturalist, 167(6), 808-825.
Pagel, M. (1994). Detecting correlated evolution on phylogenies: a general method for the comparative analysis of discrete characters. Proceedings of Royal Society Biological Sciences, 255, 37–45.
Pagel, M. (1999). Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution. Nature, 401, 877–884.
Paine, C.E.T., Baraloto, C., Chave, J. & Hérault, B. (2011). Functional traits of individual trees reveal ecological constraints on community assembly in tropical rain forests. Oikos, 120, 720–727.
Palmiotto, P.A., Davies, S.J., Vogt, K.A., Ashton, M.S., Vogt, D.J. & Ashton, P.S. (2004). Soil-related habitat specialization in dipterocarp rain forest tree species in Borneo. Journal of Ecology, 92, 609–623.
Parolin, P. & Wittmann, F. (2010). Struggle in the flood: tree responses to flooding stress in four tropical floodplain systems. AoB PLANTS, 2010, plq003.
Parolin, P. (2001). Morphological and physiological adjustments to waterlogging and drought in seedlings of Amazonian floodplain trees. Oecologia, 128, 326–335.
Parolin, P. (2012). Diversity of adaptations to flooding in trees of Amazonian floodplains. Revista Pesquisas-Botânica, 63, 7–28.
Parolin, P., Lucas, C., Piedade, M.T.F. & Wittmann, F. (2010). Drought responses of flood-tolerant trees in Amazonian floodplains. Annals of Botany, 105, 129–139.
Parolin, P., Simone, O.D., Haase, K., Waldhoff, D., Rottenberger, S., Kuhn, U., et al. (2004). Central amazonian floodplain forests: tree adaptations in a pulsing system. The Botanical Review, 70, 357–380.
Pascal, J. (1982). Bioclimates of the Western Ghats. Travaux de la Section Scientifique et Technique, Hors Série n°17. French Institute, Pondicherry, India.
Pascal, J. (1986). Explanatory Booklet on the Forest Map of South India. Sheets: Belgaum-Dharwar-Panaji, Shimoga, Mercara-Mysore. Travaux de la Section Scientifique et Technique, Hors Série 18. French Institute, Pondicherry.
Pascal, J.P. (1988). Wet Evergreen Forests of the Western Ghats of India: Ecology, Structure, Floristic Composition and Succession. Institut Francais de Pondichery, Pondicherry.
Patterson, T.B. & Givnish, T.J. (2003). Geographic cohesion, chromosomal evolution, parallel adaptive radiations, and consequent floral adaptations in Calochortus (Calochortaceae): evidence from a cpDNA phylogeny. New Phytologist, 161, 253–264.
Pavoine, S., Love, M.S. & Bonsall, M.B. (2009). Hierarchical partitioning of evolutionary and ecological patterns in the organization of phylogenetically-structured species assemblages: application to rockfish (genus: Sebastes) in the Southern California Bight. Ecology Letters, 12, 898–908.
Pearse, W.D. & Purvis, A. (2013). PhyloGenerator: An automated phylogeny generation tool for ecologists. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 4(7), 692–698.
Pearson, R.G., Raxworthy, C.J., Nakamura, M. & Peterson, A.T. (2007). Predicting species distributions from small numbers of occurrence records: a test case using cryptic geckos in Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography, 34, 102–117.
Pei, N., Lian, J.-Y., Erickson, D.L., Swenson, N.G., Kress, W.J., Ye, W.-H., et al. (2011). Exploring tree-habitat associations in a Chinese subtropical forest plot using a molecular phylogeny generated from dna barcode loci. PLoS ONE, 6, 21273.
Pennington, R.T., Lavin, M. & Oliveira-Filho, A. (2009). Woody plant diversity, evolution, and ecology in the tropics: perspectives from seasonally dry tropical forests. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 40, 437–457.
Pepper, A.E. & Norwood, L.E. (2001). Evolution of Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae (Brassicaceae), a rare serpentine endemic plant: A molecular phylogenetic perspective. American Journal of Botany, 88, 1479.
Pérez-Harguindeguy, N., Díaz, S., Garnier, E., Lavorel, S., Poorter, H., Jaureguiberry, P., et al. (2013). New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany, 61, 167–234.
Petchey, O.L. & Gaston, K.J. (2006). Functional diversity: back to basics and looking forward. Ecology Letters, 9, 741–758.
Petchey, O.L., Hector, A. & Gaston, K.J. (2004). How do different measures of functional diversity perform? Ecology, 85, 847–857.
Peterson, A.T. (1999). Conservatism of ecological niches in evolutionary time. Science, 285, 1265–1267.
Peterson, A.T., Papeş, M. & Soberón, J. (2008). Rethinking receiver operating characteristic analysis applications in ecological niche modeling. Ecological Modelling, 213, 63–72.
Phillips, S.J., Anderson, R.P. & Schapire, R.E. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231–259.
Pielou, E.C. & Routledge, R.D. (1976). Salt marsh vegetation: Latitudinal gradients in the zonation patterns. Oecologia, 24, 311–321.
Pigot, A.L. & Etienne, R.S. (2015). A new dynamic null model for phylogenetic community structure. Ecology Letters, 18, 153–163.
Pitman, N.C.A., Terborgh, J.W., Silman, M.R., Nunez, P., Neill, D.A., Ceron, C.E., Palacios, W.A. & Aulestia, M. (2001). Dominance and distribution of tree species in upper Amazonian terra firme forests. Ecology, 82, 2101–2117.
Podani, J. & Schmera, D. (2006). On dendrogram-based measures of functional diversity. Oikos, 115, 179–185.
Potts, M.D., Ashton, P.S., Kaufman, L.S. & Plotkin, J.B. (2002). Habitat patterns in tropical rain forests: a comparison of 105 plots in Northwest Borneo. Ecology, 83, 2782–2797.
Prance, G.T. (1979). Notes on the vegetation of amazonia iii. The terminology of Amazonian forest types subject to inundation. Brittonia, 31, 26–38.
Pratt, R.B., Jacobsen, A.L., Ewers, F.W. & Davis, S.D. (2007). Relationships among xylem transport, biomechanics and storage in stems and roots of nine Rhamnaceae species of the California chaparral. New Phytologist, 174, 787–798.
Preston, K.A., Cornwell, W.K. & DeNoyer, J.L. (2006). Wood density and vessel traits as distinct correlates of ecological strategy in 51 California coast range angiosperms. New Phytologist, 170, 807–818.
Prinzing, A., Durka, W., Klotz, S. & Brandl, R. (2001). The niche of higher plants: evidence for phylogenetic conservatism. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 268, 2383–2389.
Priti, H., Aravind, N., Shaanker, R.U. & Ravikanth, G. (2016). Modeling impacts of future climate on the distribution of Myristicaceae species in the Western Ghats, India. Ecological Engineering, 89, 14–23.
Puri, G.S., Meher-Homji, V.M., Gupta, R.K. & Puri, S. (1983). Forest Ecology Vol. I Phytogeography and Forest Conservation. Oxford IBH, New Delhi.
Pyke, C.R., Condit, R., Aguilar, S. & Lao, S. (2001). Floristic composition across a climatic gradient in a neotropical lowland forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 12, 553–566.
Rajakaruna, N., Baldwin, B.G., Chan, R., Desrochers, A.M., Bohm, B.A. & Whitton, J. (2003). Edaphic races and phylogenetic taxa in the Lasthenia californica complex (Asteraceae: Heliantheae): an hypothesis of parallel evolution. Molecular Ecology, 12, 1675–1679.
Rambaut, A., & Drummond, A.J. (2009). Tracer version 1.5 [computer program] http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk.
Ramesh, B., Swaminath, M., Patil, S. & Aravajy, S. (2009). Assessment and conservation of forest biodiversity in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. 2. Assessment of Tree Biodiversity, Logging Impact and General Discussion. Institut Français de Pondichéry, 65–121.
Ramesh, B.R., Swaminath, M.H., Patil, S. V., Dasappa, Pélissier, R., Venugopal, P.D., et al. (2010a). Forest stand structure and composition in 96 sites along environmental gradients in the central Western Ghats of India. Ecology, 91, 3118–3118.
Ramesh, B.R., Venugopal, P.D., Pélissier, R., Patil, S. V., Swaminath, M.H. & Couteron, P. (2010b). Mesoscale patterns in the floristic composition of forests in the central Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Biotropica, 42, 435–443.
Rao, C. (1982). Diversity and dissimilarity coefficients: A unified approach. Theoretical Population Biology, 21, 24–43.
Rao, G.R., Krishnakumar, G., Chandran, S. & Ramachandran, T.V. (2014). Threatened tree species of swamps and riparian habitats of central western ghats. In: LAKE 2014: Conference on Conservation and Sustainable Management of Wetland Ecosystems in Western Ghats. Bangalore.
Reich, P.B., Walters, M.B. & Ellsworth, D.S. (1992). Leaf life-span in relation to leaf, plant, and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecological Monograph, 62, 365–392.
Revell, L.J. (2012). phytools: an R package for phylogenetic comparative biology (and other things). Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 217–223.
Richardson, D.M., Pysek, P., Rejmanek, M., Barbour, M.G., Panetta, F.D. & West, C.J. (2000). Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions, 6, 93–107.
Ricklefs, R.E. & Renner, S.S. (2012). Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality. Science, 335, 464–467.
Ricklefs, R.E. & Schluter, D. (1993a). Species diversity: regional and historical influences. In: Species diversity in ecological communities: historical and geographical perspectives (Ricklefs, R.E. & Schluter, D. (eds)). Univ. of Chicago Press, 350-359.
Ricklefs, R.E. & Schluter, D. (1993b). Species diversity in ecological communities: historical and geographical perspectives. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Ricklefs, R.E. & Travis, J. (1980). A morphological approach to the study of avian community organization. The Auk, 97, 321–338.
Ricklefs, R.E. (2004). A comprehensive framework for global patterns in biodiversity. Ecology Letters, 7, 1–15.
Ricklefs, R.E. (2006). Evolutionary diversification and the origin of the diversity-environment relationship. Ecology, 87, S3–13.
Ricotta, C. (2005). A note on functional diversity measures. Basic and Applied Ecology, 6, 479–486.
Ripley, B., Bates, D., Hornik, K., Gebhardt, A. & Firth. D. (2011). Package ‘MASS’. Available at: cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MASS (accessed 27 November 2015).
Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., Mark, P.V.D., Ayres, D.L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., et al. (2012). MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology, 61, 539–542.
Rosindell, J., Hubbell, S.P. & Etienne, R.S. (2011). The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography at age ten. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 26, 340–348.
Rothwell, G. W. & Scheckler, S.E. (1988). Biology of ancestral gymnosperms. In: Origin and early evolution of gymnosperms (Beck, C.B(eds)). Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USA. pp 85-134.
Roxburgh, S.H. & Mokany, K. (2007). Comment on "From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity". Science, 316, 812–814.
Ruokolainen, K., Linna, A. & Tuomisto, H. (1997). Use of Melastomataceae and pteridophytes for revealing phytogeographical patterns in Amazonian rain forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 13, 243–256.
Russo, S.E., Davies, S.J., King, D.A. & Tan, S. (2005). Soil-related performance variation and distributions of tree species in a Bornean rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 93, 879–889.
Sammul, M., Oksanen, L. & Mägi, M. (2006). Regional effects on competition-productivity relationship: a set of field experiments in two distant regions. Oikos, 112, 138–148.
Sánchez-Fernández, D., Lobo, J.M., Abellán, P. & Millán, A. (2011). Environmental niche divergence between genetically distant lineages of an endangered water beetle. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103, 891–903.
Sanderson, M.J. (2002). Estimating absolute rates of molecular evolution and divergence times: a penalized likelihood approach. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 19, 101–109.
Sauquet, H. (2004). Systematic revision of Myristicaceae (Magnoliales) in Madagascar, with four new species of Mauloutchia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 146, 351–368.
Sauquet, H., Doyle, J.A., Scharaschkin, T., Borsch, T., Hilu, K.W., Chatrou, L.W., et al. (2003). Phylogenetic analysis of Magnoliales and Myristicaceae based on multiple data sets: implications for character evolution. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 142, 125–186.
Schleuter, D., Daufresne, M., Massol, F. & Argillier, C. (2010). A users guide to functional diversity indices. Ecological Monographs, 80, 469–484.
Schluter, D. (2009). Evidence for ecological speciation and its alternative. Science, 323, 737–741.
Schlüter, U.B. & Furch, B. (n.d.). Morphologische, anatomische und physiologische Untersuchungen zur U¨ berflutungstoleranz des Baumes Macrolobium acaciaefolium, charakteristisch f¨ur die Weiß- und Schwarzwasser-¨uberschwemmungsw¨alder beiManaus. Amazonia, 12, 51–69.
Schoener, T.W. (1968). The Anolis lizards of bimini: resource partitioning in a complex fauna. Ecology, 49, 704–726.
Schoener, T.W. (2010). The MacArthur-Wilson equilibrium model. In: The theory of island biogeography revisited. essay. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, pp. 52–87.
Seabloom, E.W., Borer, E.T., Buckley, Y.M., Cleland, E.E., Davies, K.F., Firn, J. et al. (2015). Plant species’ origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands. Nature Communications, 6, 7710.
Seidler, T.G. & Plotkin, J.B. (2006). Seed dispersal and spatial pattern in tropical trees. PLoS Biology, 4(11), e344
Shipley, B. (2010). Community assembly, natural selection and maximum entropy models. Oikos, 119, 604–609.
Shipley, B., Lechowicz, M.J., Wright, I. & Reich, P.B. (2006). Fundamental trade-offs generating the worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Ecology, 87, 535–541.
Shipley, B., Vile, D. & Garnier, E. (2006). From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity. Science, 314, 812–814.
Silva, I. & Batalha, M. (2009). Phylogenetic overdispersion of plant species in southern Brazilian savannas. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 69, 843–849.
Silvertown J. (2004). Plant coexistence and the niche. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 605–611.
Silvertown, J. (2004). The ghost of competition past in the phylogeny of island endemic plants. Journal of Ecology, 92, 168–173.
Simons, N.K., Gossner, M.M., Lewinsohn, T.M., Lange, M., Turke, M. & Weisser, W.W. (2014). Effects of land-use intensity on arthropod species abundance distributions in grasslands. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84, 143–154.
Spasojevic, M.J. & Suding, K.N. (2012). Inferring community assembly mechanisms from functional diversity patterns: the importance of multiple assembly processes. Journal of Ecology, 100, 652–661.
Srivastava, D.S. (1999). Using local-regional richness plots to test for species saturation: pitfalls and potentials. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 1–16.
Steege, H.T. (1994). Flooding and drought tolerance in seeds and seedlings of two Mora species segregated along a soil hydrological gradient in the tropical rain forest of Guyana. Oecologia, 100, 356–367.
Steege, H.T., Pitman, N.C.A., Phillips, O.L., Chave, J., Sabatier, D., Duque, A., et al. (2006). Continental-scale patterns of canopy tree composition and function across Amazonia. Nature, 443, 444–447.
Stephenson, N.L. (1990). Climatic control of vegetation distribution: The role of the water balance. American Naturalist, 135, 649–670.
Stevens, R.D., Cox, S.B., Strauss, R.E. & Willig, M.R. (2003). Patterns of functional diversity across an extensive environmental gradient: vertebrate consumers, hidden treatments and latitudinal trends. Ecology Letters, 6, 1099–1108.
Strong, D.R. Jr., Szyska, L.A., & Simberloff, D.S. (1979). Test of community-wide character displacement against null hypotheses. Evolution, 33, 897–913.
Struwe, L., Smouse, P.E., Heiberg, E., Haag, S. & Lathrop, R.G. (2011). Spatial evolutionary and ecological vicariance analysis (SEEVA), a novel approach to biogeography and speciation research, with an example from Brazilian Gentianaceae. Journal of Biogeography, 38, 1841–1854.
Stubbs, W.J. & Wilson, J.B. (2004). Evidence for limiting similarity in a sand dune community. Journal of Ecology, 92, 557–567.
Svenning, J.C. (2001). Environmental heterogeneity, recruitment limitation and the mesoscale distribution of palms in a tropical montane rain forest (Maquipucuna, Ecuador). Journal of Tropical Ecology, 17, 97–113.
Swenson, N.G. & Enquist, B.J. (2009). Opposing assembly mechanisms in a Neotropical dry forest: implications for phylogenetic and functional community ecology. Ecology, 90, 2161–2170.
Swenson, N.G., Anglada-Cordero, P. & Barone, J.A. (2011). Deterministic tropical tree community turnover: evidence from patterns of functional beta diversity along an elevational gradient. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278, 877–884.
Swenson, N.G., Enquist, B.J., Pither, J., Thompson, J. & Zimmerman, J.K. (2006). The problem and promise of scale dependency in community phylogenetics. Ecology, 87, 2418–2424.
Swenson, N.G., Enquist, B.J., Thompson, J. & Zimmerman, J.K. (2007). The influence of spatial and size scale on phylogenetic relatedness in tropical forest communities. Ecology, 88, 1770–1780.
Swenson, N.G., Stegen, J.C., Davies, S.J., Erickson, D.L., Forero-Montaña, J., Hurlbert, A.H., et al. (2012). Temporal turnover in the composition of tropical tree communities: functional determinism and phylogenetic stochasticity. Ecology, 93, 490–499.
Tambat, B. (2007). Freshwater Myristica swamps: an unique and highly threatened ecosystem of the Western Ghats, India: Distribution, ecology, phylogeny, population genetics, fitness and threats. thesis. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore.
Tambat, B., Vishwanath, K., Chaithra, G. & Hareesh, T. (2006). Improved germination of Gymnacranthera canarica Warb. an endangered, endemic tree species of Myristica swamps, Western Ghats, India. Seed Science and Technology, 34, 603–608.
Ter-Steege, H. (1994). Flooding and drought tolerance in seeds and seedlings of two Mora species segregated along a soil hydrological gradient in the tropical rain forest of Guyana. Oecologia, 100, 356–367.
Theilade, I., Schmidt, L., Chhang, P. & Mcdonald, J.A. (2011). Evergreen swamp forest in Cambodia: Floristic composition, ecological characteristics, and conservation status. Nordic Journal of Botany, 29, 71–80.
Thomas, S.C & Ickes, K. (1995). Ontogenetic changes in leaf size in Malaysian rainforest trees. Biotropica, 27, 427-434.
Thompson, K., Petchey, O.L., Askew, A.P., Dunnett, N.P., Beckerman, A.P. & Willis, A.J. (2010). Little evidence for limiting similarity in a long-term study of a roadside plant community. Journal of Ecology, 98, 480–487.
Tilman, D. (1982). Resource competition and community structure. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Tilman, D. (2004). Niche tradeoffs, neutrality, and community structure: A stochastic theory of resource competition, invasion, and community assembly. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 10854–10861.
Tucker, C.M., Cadotte, M.W., Carvalho, S.B., Davies, T.J., Ferrier, S., Fritz, S.A., et al. (2016). A guide to phylogenetic metrics for conservation, community ecology and macroecology. Biological Reviews, 92, 698–715.
Tuomisto, H., Ruokolainen, K., Kalliola, R., Linna, A., Danjoy, W. & Rodriguez, Z. (1995). Dissecting Amazonian biodiversity. Science, 269, 63–66.
Turner, I.M. (2001). The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
Uriarte, M., Swenson, N.G., Chazdon, R.L., Comita, L.S., Kress, W.J., Erickson, D., et al. (2010). Trait similarity, shared ancestry and the structure of neighbourhood interactions in a subtropical wet forest: implications for community assembly. Ecology Letters, 13, 1503–1514.
Valiente-Banuet, A. & Verdú, M. (2007). Facilitation can increase the phylogenetic diversity of plant communities. Ecology Letters, 10, 1029–1036.
Vamosi, S.M., Heard, S.B., Vamosi, J.C. & Webb, C.O. (2009). Emerging patterns in the comparative analysis of phylogenetic community structure. Molecular Ecology, 18, 572–592.
Van Der Valk, A.G. (1981). Succession in wetlands: A Gleasonian appraoch. Ecology, 62, 688–696.
van Ommen Kloeke, A.E.E., Douma, J.C., Ordoñez, J.C., Reich, P.B. & van Bodegom, P.M. (2012). Global quantification of contrasting leaf life span strategies for deciduous and evergreen species in response to environmental conditions. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 224–235.
Vavrek. (2011). Vavrek MJ. Fossil: palaeoecological and palaeogeographical analysis tools. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14, 16.
Vellend, M. (2010). Conceptual synthesis in community ecology. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 85, 183–206.
Verdcourt, B. (1997). Flora of tropical East Africa. Myristicaceae. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
Verdú, M. & Pausas, J.G. (2007). Fire drives phylogenetic clustering in Mediterranean Basin woody plant communities. Journal of Ecology, 95, 1316–1323.
Vijayakumar, P.K. & Vasudeva, R. (2011). Characterization of soil properties from fresh water swamps and adjoining evergreen forest area. Karnataka Journal of Agriculture Science, 24, 601–602.
Ville´ger, S., Mason, N. W. H. and Mouillot, D. (2008). New multidimensional functional diversity indices for a multifaceted framework in functional ecology. Ecology, 89, 2290- 2301.
Violle, C., Enquist, B.J., Mcgill, B.J., Jiang, L., Albert, C.H., Hulshof, C., et al. (2012). The return of the variance: intraspecific variability in community ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27, 244–252.
Violle, C., Navas, M.L., Vile, D., Kazakou, E., Fortunel, C., Hummel, I. et al. (2007). Let the concept of trait be functional. Oikos, 116, 882–892.
Walsh, C. & Mac. Nally, R. (2013). Package hier.part. Hierarchical partitioning. Version 1.0-4. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, Available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/hier.part/hier.part.pdf (accessed 9.3.18).
Ward, J.V., Doyle, J.A. & Hotton, C.L. (n.d.). Probable granular magnoliid angiosperm pollen from the Early Cretaceous. Pollen Spores, 33, 101–120.
Warren, D.L., Cardillo, M., Rosauer, D.F. & Bolnick, D.I. (2014). Mistaking geography for biology: inferring processes from species distributions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29, 572–580.
Warren, D.L., Glor, R.E. & Turelli, M. (2008). Environmental niche equivalency versus conservatism: Quantitative approaches to niche evolution. Evolution, 62, 2868–2883.
Warren, D.L., Glor, R.E. & Turelli, M. (2010). ENMTools: a toolbox for comparative studies of environmental niche models. Ecography, 33(3), 607-611.
Webb, C. O. et al. (2008). Ecological organization, biogeography, and the phylogenetic structure of tropical forest tree communities. In: Tropical forest community ecology (eds. Carson, W. & Schnitzer, S). Blackwell, pp. 79 – 97.
Webb, C.O. & Donoghue, M.J. (2005). Phylomatic: tree assembly for applied phylogenetics. Molecular Ecology Notes, 5, 181-183.
Webb, C.O. & Donoghue, M.J. (2005). Phylomatic: tree assembly for applied phylogenetics. Molecular Ecology Notes, 5, 181–183.
Webb, C.O. & Peart, D.R. (2000). Habitat associations of trees and seedlings in a Bornean rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 88, 464–478.
Webb, C.O. & Pitman, N.C.A. (2002). Phylogenetic balance and ecological evenness. Systematic Biology, 51, 898–907.
Webb, C.O. (2000). Exploring the phylogenetic structure of ecological communities: an example for rain forest trees. American Naturalist, 156, 145–155.
Webb, C.O., Ackerly, D.D. & Kembel, S.W. (2008). Phylocom: software for the analysis of phylogenetic community structure and trait evolution. Bioinformatics, 24, 2098–2100.
Webb, C.O., Ackerly, D.D., Mcpeek, M.A. & Donoghue, M.J. (2002). Phylogenies and community ecology. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 33, 475–505.
Weiher, E. & Keddy, P.A. (1995). Assembly rules, null models, and trait dispersion: new questions from old patterns. Oikos, 74, 159–164.
Weiher, E. & Keddy, P.A. (2001). Ecological assembly rules: perspectives, advances, retreats. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Weiher, E., Clarke, G.D.P. & Keddy, P.A. (1998). Community assembly rules, morphological dispersion, and the coexistence of plant species. Oikos, 81, 309-322
Wennekes, P.L., Rosindell, J. & Etienne, R.S. (2012). The neutral-niche debate: A philosophical perspective. Acta Biotheoretica, 60, 257–271.
Westoby, M. & Wright, I.J. (2006). Land-plant ecology on the basis of functional traits. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 261–268.
Westoby, M., Falster, D.S., Moles, A.T., Vesk, P.A. & Wright, I.J. (2002). Plant ecological strategies: some leading dimensions of variation between species. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 33, 125–159.
Whitfeld, T.J.S., Kress, W.J., Erickson, D.L. & Weiblen, G.D. (2012). Change in community phylogenetic structure during tropical forest succession: evidence from New Guinea. Ecography, 35, 821–830.
Wiens, J.J. & Donoghue, M.J. (2004). Historical biogeography, ecology and species richness. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19, 639–644.
Wiens, J.J. & Graham, C.H. (2005). Niche conservatism: integrating evolution, ecology, and conservation biology. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 36, 519–539.
Wiens, J.J. (2004). Speciation and ecology revisited: phylogenetic niche conservatism and the origin of species. Evolution, 58, 193–197.
Wiens, J.J., Ackerly, D.D., Allen, A.P., Anacker, B.L., Buckley, L.B., Cornell, H.V., et al. (2010). Niche conservatism as an emerging principle in ecology and conservation biology. Ecology Letters, 13, 1310–1324.
Winemiller, K.O., Fitzgerald, D.B., Bower, L.M. & Pianka, E.R. (2015). Functional traits, convergent evolution, and periodic tables of niches. Ecology Letters, 18, 737–751.
Wittmann, F. & Parolin, P. (2005). Aboveground roots in Amazonian floodplain trees. Biotropica, 37, 609–619.
Woodward, F., Lomas, M. & Kelly, C.K. (2004). Global climate and the distribution of plant biomes. Philosophical Transactions
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top