Login | Register

Leakage versus Material Filtration in Barrier Facemask Efficiency

Title:

Leakage versus Material Filtration in Barrier Facemask Efficiency

Bahloul, Ali ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4597-2001, Brochot, Clothilde ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2431-5053 and Layne, Barbara ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3606-0673 (2021) Leakage versus Material Filtration in Barrier Facemask Efficiency. Health, 13 (4). pp. 439-453. ISSN 1949-5005

[img]
Preview
Other (Publsher's Version) (application/pdf)
Leakage Versus Material Filtration.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.
1MB

Official URL: https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.134035

Abstract

The World Health Association and many governmental agencies recommend the wearing of facemasks by the general public to prevent the spread of COVID-19. It is believed that masks can significantly protect others and may offer some protection to the wearer. Although there are standards for FFRs, surgical masks, and recently for barrier face coverings, they all indicate the level of protection for the wearer. However, testing facial masks not at the point of inhalation, but at the source, the exhale, offers a new perspective on how to impede particle emissions. In this paper, the experimental results show that, although the barrier face covering is less effective than FFRs or surgical masks, it can reduce the concentration of aerosols downstream of the device. The results on barrier efficiency show a rapid decrease in effectiveness when the face covering is not sealed to the head. The barrier efficiency of two of the barrier face coverings tested is strongly dependent on leakage caused by the fit rather than the material. While some materials certainly are more ef-fective than others in inhibiting particle penetration, an even more profound factor is the amount of leakage emitted from a mask. New approaches to fit and design in order to create a seal against leakage will become an important factor in combatting SARS-CoV-2.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Authors:Bahloul, Ali and Brochot, Clothilde and Layne, Barbara
Journal or Publication:Health
Date:April 2021
Funders:
  • IRSST (Institut de recherché Robert Sauvé en Santé et en sécurité du Travail)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):10.4236/health.2021.134035
Keywords:COVID-19, Facemask, Filtration, Leakage, Aerosol, Airborne Transmission
ID Code:988328
Deposited By: BARBARA LAYNE
Deposited On:05 May 2021 20:04
Last Modified:05 May 2021 20:04
Related URLs:

References:

[1] National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2020) Rapid Expert Consultation on the Possibility of Bioaerosol Spread of SARS-CoV-2 for the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 1, 2020). The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
[2] Morawska, L. and Milton, D.K. (2020) Open Letter to World Health Organization. Clinical Infectious Diseases Journal, July 8, 2020.
[3] World Health Organization (WHO) (2020) Transmission of SARS-CoV-2-Implications for Infection Prevention Precaution.
https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/transmission-of-sars-cov-2-implications-for-infection-prevention-precautions
[4] Health Canada (2020) Non-Medical Masks and Face Coverings: About.
https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/2019-novel-coronavirus-infection/prevention-risks/about-non-medical-masks-face-coverings.html
[5] Government of Quebec (2020) Wearing a Mask or a Face Covering in Public Settings in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic.
https://www.quebec.ca/en/health/health-issues/a-z/2019-coronavirus/wearing-a-face-covering-in-public-settings-in-the-context-of-the-covid-19-pandemic
[6] UK Government (2020) Guidance—Face Coverings: When to Wear One and How to Make Your Own.
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/face-coverings-when-to-wear-one-and-how-to-make-your-own/face-coverings-when-to-wear-one-and-how-to-make-your-own
[7] Lyu, W. and Wehby, G.L. (2020) Community Use of Face Masks and COVID-19: Evidence from a Natural Experiment of State Mandates in the U.S. Health Affairs Journal, 39, 1419-1425.
https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00818
[8] Health Canada (2020) COVID-19 Medical Masks and N95 Respirators—Overview.
https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/medical-devices/masks-respirators-covid19.html
[9] Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (1995) 42 CFR, Part 84 Respiratory Protection Devices. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
[10] Rengasamy, S., Eimer, B. and Shaffer, R.E. (2010) Simple Respiratory Protection—Evaluation of the Filtration Performance of Cloth Masks and Common Fabric Materials against 20-1000 nm Size Particles. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 7, 789.
[11] Davies, A., Thompson, K.-A., Giri, K., Kafatos, G., Walker, J. and Bennett, A. (2013) Testing the Efficacy of Homemade Masks: Would They Protect in an Influenza Pandemic? Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 7, 413.
https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2013.43
[12] Konda, A., Prakash, A., Moss, G.A., Schmoldt, M., Grant, G.D. and Guha, S. (2020) Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks. ACS Nano, 14, 6339.
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c03252
[13] National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2020) Rapid Expert Consultation on the Effectiveness of Fabric Masks for the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 8, 2020). The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
https://doi.org/10.17226/25776
[14] Neupane, B.B., Mainali, S., Sharma, A. and Giri, B. (2019) Optical Microscopic Study of Surface Morphology and Filtering Efficiency of Face Masks. PeerJ, 7, e7142.
https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7142
[15] Fisher, E.P., Fischer, M.C., Grass, D., Henrion, I., Warren, W.S. and Westman, E. (2020) Low-Cost Measurement of Facemask Efficacy for Filtering Expelled Droplets during Speech. Science Advances, 6, eabd3083.
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.20132969
[16] Aydin, O., Emon, B., Cheng, S., Hong, L., Chamorro, L.P. and Saif, M.T.A. (2020) Performance of Fabrics for Home-Made Masks against the Spread of COVID-19 through Droplets: A Quantitative Mechanistic Study. Extreme Mechanics Letters, 40, Article ID: 100924.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eml.2020.100924
[17] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2020) How to Make Cloth Face Covering.
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/how-to-make-cloth-face-covering.html
[18] Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR) (2020) AFNOR SPEC S76-001— Masques barrières—Guide d’exigences minimales, de méthodes d’essais, de confection et d’usage.
[19] ASTM International (2021) F3502-21 Standard Specification for Barrier Face Coverings. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
[20] Hinds, W.C. and Kraske, G. (1987) Performance of Dust Respirators with Facial Seal Leaks I. Experimental. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 48, 836.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15298668791385679
[21] Chen, C.C. and Willeke, K. (1992) Characteristics of Face Seal Leakage in Filtering Facepieces. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 53, 533.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15298669291360120
[22] Brochot, C., Michielsen, N., Chazelet, S. and Thomas, D. (2012) Measurement of Protection Factor for Respiratory Protective Devices toward Nanoparticles. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 5, 595.
[23] Van Der Sande, M., Teunis, P. and Sabel, R. (2008) Professional and Home-Made Face Masks Reduce Exposure to Respiratory Infections among the General Population. PLoS ONE, 3, e2618.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002618
[24] Bahloul, A., Mahdavi, A., Haghighat, F. and Ostiguy, C. (2014) Evaluation of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator Efficiency with Cyclic and Constant Flows. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 11, 499.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2013.877590
[25] Mahdavi, A., Bahloul, A., Haghighat, F. and Ostiguy, C. (2014) Contribution of Breathing Frequency and Inhalation Flow Rate on Performance of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 58, 195.
[26] Mahdavi, A., Haghighat, F., Bahloul, A., Brochot, C. and Ostiguy, C. (2015) Particle Loading Time and Humidity Effects on the Efficiency of an N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator Model under Constant and Inhalation Cyclic Flows. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 59, 629.
[27] Brochot, C., Djebara, A., Haghighat, F. and Bahloul, A. (2015) Validation of a Laboratory Test Bench for the Efficiency of an N95 Filtering Face Piece, Using Simulated Occupational Exposure. Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology, 5, 286.
https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-0525.1000286
[28] Brochot, C., Haghighat, F. and Bahloul, A. (2020) Comparative Performance of the NanoScan and the Classic SMPS in Determining N95 Filtering Facepiece Efficiency against Nanoparticles. Aerosol Science and Engineering, 4, 178.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s41810-020-00064-4
[29] Tang, J.W., Nicolle, A.D., Klettner, C.A., Pantelic, J., Wang, L., Suhaimi, A.S., Tan, A.Y.L., Ong, G.W.X., Su, R., Sekhar, C., Cheong, D.D.W. and Tham, K.W. (2013) Airflow Dynamics of Human Jets: Sneezing and Breathing—Potential Sources of Infectious Aerosols. PLoS ONE, 8, e59970.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059970
[30] Chao, C.Y.H., Wan, M.P., Morawaska, L., Johnson, G.R., Ristovski, Z.D., Hargreaves, M., Mengersen, K., Corbett, S., Li, Y., Xie, X. and Katoshevshi, D. (2009) Characterization of Expiration Air Jets and Droplet Size Distributions Immediately at the Mouth Opening. Aerosol Science, 40, 122.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2008.10.003
[31] Bourouiba, L., Dehandschoewercker, E. and Bush, J.W.M. (2014) Violent Expiratory Events: On Coughing and Sneezing. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 745, 537.
https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2014.88
[32] Liu, B.Y.H., Lee, J.K., Mullins, H. and Danish, S.G. (1993) Respirator Leak Detection by Ultrafine Aerosols: A Predictive Model and Experimental Study. Aerosol Science and Technology, 19, 15.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02786829308959617
[33] Mouret, G., Thomas, D., Chazelet, S., Appert-Collin, J.C. and Bemer, D. (2009) Penetration of Nanoparticles through Fibrous Filters Perforated with Defined Pinholes. Journal of Aerosol Science, 40, 762.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2009.04.010
[34] Rengasamy, S. and Eimer, B.C. (2011) Total Inward Leakage of Nanoparticles through Filtering Facepiece Respirators. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 55, 253.
[35] Rengasamy, S. and Eimer, B.C. (2012) Nanoparticle Penetration through Filter Media and Leakage through Face Seal Interface of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 56, 568.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top