Login | Register

Penetration of Circular and Elliptical Liquid Jets into Gaseous Crossflow: A Combined Theoretical and Numerical Study


Penetration of Circular and Elliptical Liquid Jets into Gaseous Crossflow: A Combined Theoretical and Numerical Study

Marzbali, Mason (2011) Penetration of Circular and Elliptical Liquid Jets into Gaseous Crossflow: A Combined Theoretical and Numerical Study. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of MASc-Thesis-M.Marzbali-update.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
MASc-Thesis-M.Marzbali-update.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


A combined theoretical and numerical study of liquid jet deformation discharged perpendicularly into a subsonic transverse gas flow is carried out. Near-field trajectory of the jet is determined from an analytical approach for momentum flux ratios up to 100. Force balance on liquid element is analyzed in free stream direction assuming that surface tension and viscous forces are small compared to the aerodynamic force acting on the liquid column. Mass shedding from jet surface and liquid evaporation are neglected; therefore, the jet cross-sectional area and the jet velocity are invariable. A logarithmic correlation for the trajectory of elliptical liquid jets is proposed that takes into account the liquid to gas momentum ratio and drag coefficient. The changes in freestream properties and the gas velocity are incorporated in terms of the drag coefficient. In the numerical part, the drag coefficients of elliptical profiles with various aspect ratios are formulated based on the gas Reynolds number using a two dimensional model. The trajectories of elliptical jets with various aspect ratios are calculated based on the obtained drag coefficients. It is shown that the jets with lower aspect ratios penetrate more into the crossflow. Furthermore, the deformation of a circular liquid jet subject to a gaseous crossflow is simulated using a three dimensional model. Volume of Fluid method is employed to capture the interface between the two phases and the first moment of closure is used to model Reynolds stresses in Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The deformations of the jet cross-section as the jet penetrates into the crossflow are illustrated. It is shown that the model is capable of resolving the Counter-rotating Vortex Pair (CVP) formed downstream of the jet.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Marzbali, Mason
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Mechanical Engineering
Date:12 April 2011
Thesis Supervisor(s):Dolatabadi, Ali
Keywords:Liquid jet, gas crossflow, breakup regimes, penetration depth, jet trajectory
ID Code:981982
Deposited On:15 Nov 2016 20:34
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:54


1. Flow and breakup characteristics of elliptical liquid jets. Kasyap, T. V., Sivakumar, D. and Raghunandan, B. N. s.l. : International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2009, Vol. 35, pp. 8–19.
2. Atomization and Sprays. Lefebvre, Arthur H. s.l. : Combustion: An International Series, 1989, Combustion: An International Series.
3. Mechanisms of breakup of round liquid jets. Reitz, R. D. and Bracco, F. V. [ed.] N Cheremisnoff. Houston: Gulf : The Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics, 1986, Vol. 3, pp. 233–49.
4. Mechanism of Disintegration of Liquid Sheets. York, J. L., Stubbs, H. E. and Tek, M. R. s.l. : Transactions of ASME, 1953, Trans. ASME, Vol. 75, pp. 1279-1286.
5. Mechanism of Atomization of a Liquid Jet. Bracco, F. V. and Reitz, R. D. 2, 1982, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 25, pp. 1730-1741.
6. Fundamental Classification of Atomization Processes. Lightfoot, M. D. A. 11, s.l. : Atomization and Sprays, 2009, Atomization and Sprays, Vol. 19, pp. 1065-1104.
7. On the instability of jets. Rayleigh, L. s.l. : London Mathematical Society Monographs, 10, 1879.
8. Disintegration of liquid jets. Weber, C. 2, s.l. : Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 1931, Vol. 11, pp. 136-159.
9. Generation of ripples by wind blowing over viscous fluids. Taylor, G. I. [ed.] G. K. Batchelor. s.l. : Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1962, The scientific Papers of G. I. Taylor, Vol. 3, pp. 244–254.
10. Atomization and other Breakup Regimes of a Liquid Jet. Reitz, R. D. s.l. : PhD. Thesis, Princeton University, 1978.
11. Correlation of experimental data on the disintegration of liquid jets. Miesse, C. C. s.l. : Industrial Engineering Chemistry, 1955, Vol. 47, pp. 1690–1695.
12. Formation of Drops by Nozzles and Breakup of Liquid Jets. Ohnesorge, W. s.l. : Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik , 1936, Vol. 16, p. 355.
13. Drop and Spray Formation from a Liquid Jet. Lin, S. P. and Reitz, R. D. s.l. : Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 1998, Vol. 30, pp. 85–105.
14. Energy budget in atomization. Lin, S. P. and Creighton, B. s.l. : Aerosol Science and Technology, 1990, Vol. 12, pp. 630–636.
15. On the experimental investigation on primary atomization of liquid streams. Dumouche, C. s.l. : Experiments in Fluids, 2008, Vol. 45, pp. 371–422.
16. On sprays and spraying. Ranz, W. E. Penn State Univ. : A survey of spray technology for research and development engineers, 1956.
17. The instability of capillary jets. Sterling, A. M. and Sleicher, C. A. s.l. : Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1975, Vol. 68, pp. 477–495.
18. Modeling Engine Spray and Combustion Processes. Stiesch, G. s.l. : Springer, 2003.
19. Newtonian Jet Stability. Grant, R. P. and Middlemann, S. s.l. : AIChE Journal, 1966.
20. A review on Penetration Heights of Transverse Liquid Jets in High Speed Flows. Lin, K. C., Kennedy, P. J. and Jackson, T. A. s.l. : ILASS Americas, 15th Annual Conference, 2007.
21. Properties of nonturbulent round liquid jets in uniform gaseous crossflows. Aalburg, C., et al. s.l. : Atomization and Spray, 2005, Vol. 15, pp. 271–294.
22. Ballistic imaging of the liquid core for a steady jet. Linne, Mark A., et al. 31, s.l. : Applied Optics, 2005, Vol. 44.
23. Primary Breakup of Nonturbulent Round Liquid Jets in Gas Crossflows. Mazallon, J., Dai, Z. and Faeth, G. M. 3, s.l. : Atomization and Sprays, 1999, Vol. 9, pp. 291-312.
24. Investigation of a Liquid Jet in a Subsonic Cross-flow. Vich, G. and Ledoux, M. 1-3, s.l. : International Journal of Fluid Mechanics Research, 1997, Vol. 24.
25. Spray Trajectories of Liquid Fuel Jets in Subsonic Crossflows. Wu, P. K., et al. 1-3, s.l. : International Journal of Fluid Mechanics Research, 1997, Vol. 24.
26. Breakup Processes of Liquid Jets in Subsonic Crossflows. Wu, P. K., et al. 1, s.l. : Journal of Propulsion and Power, 1997, Vol. 13.
27. Breakup and Atomization of Kerosene Jet in Crossflow at Elevated Pressure. Hassa, C. and Beckerand, J. s.l. : Atomizaion and Sprays, 2002, Vol. 11, pp. 49-67.
28. Tambe, Samir B. Liquid Jets in Subsonic Crossflow. s.l. : University of Cincinnati, 2004.
29. Penetration of Liquid Jets in a cross-flow. Stenzler, Jacob N., Lee, Jong G. and San, Domenic A. s.l. : Atomization and Sprays, 2006, Vol. 16, pp. 887-906.
30. Breakup and breakdown of bent kerosene jets in gas turbine conditions. Ragucci, Raffaele, Bellofiore, Alessandro and Cavaliere, Antonio. s.l. : Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2007. Vol. 31, pp. 2231–2238.
31. Trajectory of a Liquid Jet in High Pressure and High Temperature Subsonic Air Crossflow. Amighi, A., Eslamian, M. and Ashgriz, N. s.l. : ICLASS 2009.
32. Improved Model for the Penetration of Liquid Jets in Subsonic Crossflows. Mashayek, A., Jafari, A. and Ashgriz, N. 11, s.l. : AIAA JOURNAL, 2008, Vol. 46.
33. Steady flow of power-law fluids across an unconfined elliptical cylinder. Sivakumar, P., Bharti, R. P. and Chhabra, R. P. s.l. : Chemical Engineering Science 62, 2007, pp. 1682 – 1702.
34. CFD prediction of the trajectory of a liquid jet in a non-uniform air crossflow. Ryan, Matthew J. s.l. : Computers & fluids, 2006, Vol. 35, pp. 463-476.
35. Disintegration Phenomena of Metalized Slurry Fuel Jets in High Speed Air Stream. Inamura, T., et al. s.l. : ICLASS-91 Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 1991.
36. Atomization and Bending of Coherent Deformed Jets in Crossflow. Bellofiore, A., et al. s.l. : Proceedings of the European Combustion Meeting, 2005.
37. A model for numerical simulation of breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow. Madabhushi, Ravi K. s.l. : Atomization and Sprays, 2003, Vol. 13, pp. 413-424.
38. Bag breakup of nonturbulent liquid jets in crossflow. Ng, C. L., Sankarakrishnan, R. and Sallam, K. A. s.l. : International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2008, Vol. 34, pp. 241–259.
39. Fric, T. F. Structure in the near field of the transverse jet. s.l. : Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology .
40. Vortical structure in the wake of a transverse jet. Fric, T. F. and Roshko, A. s.l. : Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1994, Vol. 279, pp. 1-47.
41. Elliptic jets in cross-flow. New, T. H., Lim, T. T. and Luo, S. C. s.l. : Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2003, Vol. 494, pp. 119–140.
42. Evolution of jets emanating from short holes into crossflow. Karagozian, A., Peterson, S. D. and Plesniak, M. W. s.l. : Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2004, Vol. 503, pp. 57–91.
43. The Generation and Decay of Vorticity. Morton, B. R. s.l. : Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, 1984, Vol. 28, pp. 277-308.
44. Predictions of Momentum and Scalar Fields in a Jet in Cross-Flow using First and Second Order Turbulence Closures. Alvarez, J., Jones, W. P. and Seoud, R. s.l. : AGARD Meeting on Computational and Experimental Assessment of Jets in Cross Flow, 1993.
45. Modeling of jets in cross flow with LES-Part 1: Momentum transport for low R w/RANS. Dai, Z., Hsieh, S. H. and Mongia, H. C. Reno, Nevada : AIAA Aerospace Sciences meeting and exhibit, 2005.
46. Multigrid calculations of a jet in cross flow. Vanka, S. P. and Claus, R. W. Reno, Nevada : AIAA Paper 90-0444, Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 1990.
47. Fluid flow of a row of jets in crossflow- a numerical study. Kim, W. and Benson, S. W. s.l. : Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 30th, Reno, NV, 1992.
48. Experimental study of a plume in a crossflow. Savory, E., Toy, N. and Ahmed, S. s.l. : Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 60, 1996, pp. 195-209.
49. Predictions of a Film Coolant Jet in Crossflow With Different Turbulence Models. Hoda, Asif and Acharya, Sumanta. s.l. : Transactions of the ASME, 2000, Vol. 122.
50. The Numerical Computation of Turbulent Flows. Launder, B. E. and Spalding, D. B. s.l. : Computer Methods Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 1974, Vol. 3, pp. 269–289.
51. Application of the Energy Dissipation Model of Turbulence to the Calculation of Flow Near a Spinning Disc. Launder, B. E. and Sharma, B. I. s.l. : Letters in Heat and Mass Transfer, 1974, Vol. 1, pp. 131–138.
52. Modified Form of the Model for Predicting Wall Turbulence. Lam, C. K. and Bremhorst, K A. s.l. : ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, 1981, Vol. 103, pp. 456–460.
53. A Complete Model of Turbulence. Wilcox, D. C., and Traci, R. M. s.l. : AIAA Paper No. 76–351, 1976.
54. Low Reynolds Number Modeling With the Aid of Direct Simulation Data. Rodi, W., and Mansour, N. N. s.l. : Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1993, Vol. 250, pp. 509–529.
55. Prediction of Anisotropy of the Near-Wall Turbulence With an Anisotropic Low-Reynolds-Number Turbulence Model. Mayong, H. K. and Kasagi, N. s.l. : ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, 1990, Vol. 112, pp. 521–524.
56. On Nonlinear k – l and Models of Turbulence. Speziale, C. G. s.l. : Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1987, Vol. 178, pp. 459–475.
57. Multiple Jets in a Crossflow: Detailed Measurements and Numerical Simulations. Ajersch, P., et al. s.l. : ASME Journal of Turbomachinary, 1997, Vol. 119, pp. 330–342.
58. Chatacteristics of three-dimensional turbulent jets in crossflow. Demuren, A. O. 6, s.l. : International Journal of Engineering Science, 1993, Vol. 31, pp. 899-913.
59. Experimental Investigation of Jets in a Cross Flow. Andreopoulos, J. and Rodi, W. s.l. : Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1984, Vol. 138, pp. 93-127.
60. Trajectory of a Liquid Jet Traversing Subsonic Airstreams. Inamura, Takao. 1, s.l. : Journal of Propulsion, 1999, Vol. 16.
61. A Continuum Method for Modeling Surface Tension. Brackbill, J. U., Kothe, D. B. and Zemach, C. s.l. : Journal of Computational Physics, 1992, Vol. 100, pp. 335-354.
62. Time-Dependent Multi-Material Flow with Large Fluid Distortion. Youngs, D. L. [ed.] K. W. Morton and M. J. Baines. s.l. : Academic Press, 1982, Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics.
63. Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence. Spalding, B. E. Launder and D. B. s.l. : Academic Press, London, England, 1972.
64. Introduction to the Renormalization Group Method and Turbulence Modeling. Choudhury, D. s.l. : Fluent Inc. Technical Memorandum TM-107, 1993.
65. Renormalization Group Analysis of Turbulence: I. Basic Theory. Orszag, S. A. and Yakhot, V. 1, s.l. : Journal of Scientific Computing, 1986, Vol. 1, pp. 1-51.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top