Login | Register

New Immigrants’ Perceptions of Ethnic Small Businesses


New Immigrants’ Perceptions of Ethnic Small Businesses

Hernandez Molina, Javier Enrique (2017) New Immigrants’ Perceptions of Ethnic Small Businesses. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Hernandez_MSc_S2017.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Hernandez_MSc_S2017.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


Recent immigrants in pro-immigration countries face the burden of economic instability due to lack of host country work experience, resulting in job search in the unskilled labor market as cashiers, grocery packers or waiters. At the same time, many other immigrants have taken on entrepreneurship by starting businesses that reflect deep linkages to their mother country (nationalism) in terms of products, network and cultural work environment, establishing a source of unskilled employment for other immigrants. However, there are both practical and theoretical needs to understand intergroup phenomena occurring when an immigrant intends to apply for work in a business of different ethnicity. This paper explores job seekers’ perceptions of nationalistic ethnic businesses concerning intergroup feelings (prejudice and group competition), social identity issues (nationalism) and perceived job opportunities. Results on an experiment of immigrants in Montreal indicated that, consistent with the main hypothesis, nationalistic businesses are deemed more prejudiced by job seekers than non-nationalistic ones. Interestingly, the evidence also suggested that job seekers regard each business ethnicity differently and that those prior ethnic impressions affected levels of expected prejudice. Moreover, individual variables such as job seeker’s openness to experience and ethnic identification revealed marginally significant impact on perceived prejudice. This work helps enlighten literature in intergroup conflict in the context of job search and ethnic business and enhance literature on immigrant experience. Important practical implications for recent immigrants, ethnic businesses and immigration policies are discussed in favor of reducing perceived prejudice in multicultural countries.

Divisions:Concordia University > John Molson School of Business > Management
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Hernandez Molina, Javier Enrique
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M. Sc.
Program:Administration (Management option)
Date:16 March 2017
Thesis Supervisor(s):Dyer, Linda
Keywords:Immigrants; Nationalism; Prejudice; Job opportunities; Ethnic Small Business
ID Code:982313
Deposited On:09 Jun 2017 15:37
Last Modified:17 Jul 2020 14:09


Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, R. N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper.
Al Ariss, A. and Ozbilgin, M. (2010), “Understanding self-initiated expatriates: career experiences of Lebanese self-initiated expatriates in France”, Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 52 No. 4, pp. 275-85.
Aldrich, H. E., Cater, J. C., Jones, T. P., & McEvoy, D. (1981). Business development and self-segregation. In Croom Helm.
Aldrich, H. E., & Waldinger, R. (1990). Ethnicity and entrepreneurship. Annual review of sociology, 111-135.
Allport, G. W. (1995). The nature of prejudice (25th ed.). New York: Addison-Wesley. (Original work published 1954)
Ashmore, R. D., & Del Boca, F. K. (1976). Psychological approaches to understanding intergroup conflict. In P. A. Katz (Ed.), Toward the elimination of racism (pp. 73-124). New York: Pergamon.
Bannerji, H. (2000). The paradox of diversity: The construction of a multicultural Canada and “women of color” 1. In Women's Studies International Forum (Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 537-560). Pergamon.
Barrick, M., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1–26
Barry, D. T. (2002). An ethnic identity scale for East Asian immigrants. Journal of Immigrant Health, 4(2), 87-94.
Bell, D. A. (1985). The Triumph of Asian-Americans. The new republic, 15, 24-31.
Berry, J. W. & Kalin, R. (1995). Multicultural and ethnic attitudes in Canada: An overview of the 1991 national survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 27, 301–320.
Berry, J. W., & Kalin, R. (2000). Multicultural policy and social psychology: The Canadian experience. In Political Psychology (pp. 263-284). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Baumann, T. (2004). Defining ethnicity. The SAA archaeological record, 4(4), 12-14.
Billiet, J., & Witte, H. (1995). Attitudinal dispositions to vote for a ‘new’ extreme right‐wing party: The case of ‘Vlaams Blok’. European Journal of Political Research, 27(2), 181-202.
Blank, T., & Schmidt, P. (2003). National identity in a united Germany. Patriotism or nationalism? An empirical test with representative data. Political Psychology, 24, 289–312.
Bobo, L., & Hutchings, V. L. (1996). Perceptions of racial group competition: Extending Blumer's theory of group position to a multiracial social context.American Sociological Review, 951-972.
Brendl, C. M., Markman, A. B., & Messner, C. (2001). How do indirect measures of evaluation work? Evaluating the inference of prejudice in the Implicit Association Test. Journal of personality and social psychology, 81(5), 760.
Brewer, M. B. (1988). A dual process model of impression formation. In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer, Jr. (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 1-36). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Brown, R. (1995). Prejudice: Its social psychology. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1996). Person–organization fit, job choice decisions, and organizational entry. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 67(3), 294-311.
Calitri, R. (2005). Nationalism and patriotism: The effects of national identification on implicit and explicit in-group bias. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Kent.
Chan, K. B. (1992). Ethnie Resources, Opportunity Structure and Coping Strategies: Chinese Businesses in Canada. Revue européenne des migrations internationales, 8(3), 117-137.
Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2014). 2014 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Government of Canada. Available: http:// www.cic.gc.ca
Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2015). 2015 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Government of Canada. Available: http:// www.cic.gc.ca
Cobo, J. R. M. (1987). Study of discrimination against indigenous populations.Volume V, Conclusions, proposals and recommendations,(United Nations).
Coenders, M. & Scheepers, P. (2003). The effect of education on nationalism and ethnic exclusionism: An international comparison. Political psychology,24(2), 313-343.
Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Cox TH, Jr. (2004). Problems with research by organizational scholars on issues of race and ethnicity. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40, 124–145.
Cullingford, C. (2000). Prejudice: From individual identity to nationalism in young people. Routledge.
Dambrun (2007) Understading the relationship between racial prejudice and support for the death penalty. The racist punitive bias hypothesis.
Davidson, M., & Friedman, R. A. (1998). When excuses don't work: The persistent injustice effect among Black managers. Administrative Science Quarterly, 154-183.
De Varennes, F. (1996). Law, language and the multiethnic state. Language & Communication, 16(3), 291-300.
Doherty, N., Richardson, J., & Thorn, K. (2013a). Self-initiated expatriation. Career Development International, 18(1), 6–11.
Doherty, N., Richardson, J., & Thorn, K. (2013b). Self-initiated expatriation: Career experiences, processes and outcomes. Career Development International, 18(1), 6-11.
Dolin, B. and M Young. (2004). Background Paper: Canada's Immigration Program. Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Information and Research Service. BP- 190E
Duckworth, A. L., Kirby, T. A., Tsukayama, E., Berstein, H., & Ericsson, K. A. (2011). Deliberate practice spells success why grittier competitors triumph at the national spelling bee. Social psychological and personality science, 2(2), 174-181.
Duru, E., & Poyrazli, S. (2007). Personality dimensions, psychosocial-demographic variables, and English language competency in predicting level of acculturative stress among Turkish international students. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(1), 99.
Esses, V. M., Dovidio, J. F., Jackson, L. M., & Armstrong, T. L. (2001). The immigration dilemma: The role of perceived group competition, ethnic prejudice, and national identity. Journal of Social issues, 57(3), 389-412.
Esses, V. M., Jackson, L. M., & Armstrong, T. L. (1998). Intergroup competition and attitudes toward immigrants and immigration: An instrumental model of group conflict. Journal of Social Issues, 54(4), 699-724.
Favell, A. (2016). Philosophies of integration: immigration and the idea of citizenship in France and Britain. Springer.
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140.
Fishman, J. A. (1972). Language and Nationalism: Two Integrative Essays. Newbury House, Rowley, MA.
Fiske, S. X, & Neuberg. S. L. (1990). A continuum of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: Influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 1 -74.
Fiske ST & Taylor SE. (1991). Social cognition (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Flynn, F. J. (2005). Having an open mind: the impact of openness to experience on interracial attitudes and impression formation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 88(5), 816.
Fredrickson, G. M. (1999). Models of American ethnic relations: A historical perspective. In D. A. Prentice & D. T. Miller (Eds.), Cultural divides: Understanding and overcoming group conflict (pp. 23–34). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2000). Reducing intergroup bias: The Common Ingroup Identity Model. Philadelphia: Psychology.
Gans, H. J. (1979). Symbolic ethnicity: The future of ethnic groups and cultures in America*. Ethnic and racial studies, 2(1), 1-20.
Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., & Taylor, D. M. (1977). Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations, 307348.
Fuchs, D., Gerhards, J., & Roller, E. (1993). Wir und die Anderen. Ethnozentrismus in den zwölf
Ländern der europäischen Gemeinschaft. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsycholo-
gie, 45, 238–253.
Fuchs, D., Gerhards, J., & Roller, E. (1993). Wir und die Anderen. Ethnozentrismus in den zwölf
Ländern der europäischen Gemeinschaft. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsycholo-
gie, 45, 238–253.
Grasslin, J. (2006). Justice perceptions of affirmative action and attitudes towards affirmative action: The role of locus of control and perceptions of job opportunities among final year university students (Doctoral dissertation).
Guimond, S., & Dambrun, M. (2002). When prosperity breeds intergroup hostility: The effects of relative deprivation and relative gratification on prejudice. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 28(7), 900-912.
Halikiopoulou, D., Nanou, K., & Vasilopoulou, S. (2012). The paradox of nationalism: The common denominator of radical right and radical left euroscepticism. European journal of political research, 51(4), 504-539.
Hamilton, D. L., Sherman, S. J., & Ruvolo, C. M. (1990). Stereotypebased expectancies: Effects on information processing and social behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 46, 35-60.
Hassin, R. R., Ferguson, M. J., Kardosh, R., Porter, S. C., Carter, T. J., & Dudareva, V. (2009). Précis of implicit nationalism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1167(1), 135-145.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.
Herman, H. (1979) `Dishwashers and proprietors: Macedonians in Toronto’s restaurant trade’, in S. Wallman (Ed.), Ethnicity at Work, London: Macmillan, 71±90
Hiebert, D. (2016). What’s so special about canada? understanding the resilience of immigration and multiculturalism.
Highhouse, S., & Hoffman, J. R. (2001). Organizational attraction and job choice. International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 16, 37-64.
Highhouse, S., Stierwalt, S. L., Bachiochi, P., Elder, A. E., & Fisher, G. (1999). Effects of advertised human resource management practices on attraction of African American applicants. Personnel Psychology, 52(2), 425-442.Hopkins, N. (2001). National identity: Pride and prejudice?. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(2), 183-186.
Hutchinson, J. and Smith A. (1996). Introduction. In Ethnicity. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.
Ilies, R., & Judge, T. A. (2003). On the heritability of job satisfaction: The mediating role of personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 750.
Jenkins, R. (1986) Racism and Recruitment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Jetelina, M. (2011, May 27th). Chinese immigrant Jin Fei Wang shares her story. Retrieved from: http://canadianimmigrant.ca/immigrant-stories/your-stories/chinese-immigrant-jin-fei-wang-shares-her-story
John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five Trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford Press.
Johnson, M. (1987). The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Cognition.
Jones, S. (1997). The archaeology of ethnicity: constructing identities in the past and present. Psychology Press.
Kariv, D., Menzies, T. V., Brenner, G. A., & Filion, L. J. (2009). Transnational networking and business performance: Ethnic entrepreneurs in Canada.Entrepreneurship and regional development, 21(3), 239-264.
Kaushal, N., & Lu, Y. (2015). Recent Immigration to Canada and the United States: A Mixed Tale of Relative Selection. International Migration Review,49(2), 479-522.
Kennedy, J. F. (1964). A nation of immigrants. London: Hamish Hamilton.
Kesteloot, C. and P. Mistiaen (1997). From ethnic minority niche to assimilation: Turkish restaurants in Brussels’, Area Vol. 29 No. 4, 325±34
King, E. B., & Ahmad, A. S. (2010). An experimental field study of interpersonal discrimination toward Muslim job applicants. Personnel Psychology, 63(4), 881-906.
Kirschenman, J., & Neckerman, K. M. (1991). We'd love to hire them, but...": The meaning of race for employers. The urban underclass, 203, 203-32.
Kivisto, P., & Faist, T. (2009). Beyond a border: The causes and consequences of contemporary immigration. Sage Publications.
Knowles, V. (2016). Strangers at Our Gates: Canadian Immigration and Immigration Policy, 1540–2015. Dundurn.
Kosterman, R., & Feschbach, S. (1989). Toward a measure of patriotic and nationalistic attitudes. Political Psychology, 10, 257–274.
Lang, F. R., John, D., Lüdtke, O., Schupp, J., & Wagner, G. G. (2011). Short assessment of the Big Five: Robust across survey methods except telephone interviewing. Behavior research methods, 43(2), 548-567.
Lauer, A. J. (1991). Title VII, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act and the Friendship Commerce and Navigation Treaty--An Ongoing Conflict: An Analysis of MacNamara v. Korean Air Lines. Brook. J. Int'l L., 17, 423.
LeVine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1972). Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes, and group behavior. New York: Wiley.
Ley, D. (2006). Explaining variations in business performance among immigrant entrepreneurs in Canada. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32(5), 743-764.
Li, P. S. (1993). Chinese investment and business in Canada: Ethnic entrepreneurship reconsidered. Pacific Affairs, 219-243.
Loch, A. A., Hengartner, M. P., Guarniero, F. B., Lawson, F. L., Wang, Y. P., Gattaz, W. F., & Rössler, W. (2013). The more information, the more negative stigma towards schizophrenia: Brazilian general population and psychiatrists compared. Psychiatry research, 205(3), 185-191.
Man, G. (2004, July). Gender, work and migration: Deskilling Chinese immigrant women in Canada. In Women's Studies International Forum (Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 135-148). Pergamon.
Marger, M. N. (2001). The use of social and human capital among Canadian business immigrants. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(3), 439-453.
McCrae, R. (1987). Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1258 –1265
McKay, P. F., & Avery, D. R. (2006). What has race got to do with it? Unraveling the role of racioethnicity in job seekers’ reactions to site visits. Personnel Psychology, 59(2), 395-429.
Myhill, J. (2003). The native speaker, identity, and the authenticity hierarchy.Language Sciences, 25(1), 77-97.
Operario, D., & Fiske, S. T. (2001). Ethnic identity moderates perceptions of prejudice: Judgments of personal versus group discrimination and subtle versus blatant bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(5), 550-561.
Oreopoulos, P. (2011). Why do skilled immigrants struggle in the labor market? A field experiment with thirteen thousand resumes. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 3(4), 148-171.
Peers, S. (2016). EU Justice and Home Affairs Law: EU Immigration and Asylum Law. Oxford University Press.
Petersen, W. (1980). Concepts of ethnicity. In Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, ed. S. Thernstrom, pp. 234-42. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard.
Pinel, E. C. (1999). Stigma consciousness: the psychological legacy of social stereotypes. Journal of personality and social psychology, 76(1), 114.
Piore, M. (1979). Birds of Passage. Migrant Workers and Industrial Society. Nova Iorque: Cambridge University Press.
Poppe, E., & Linssen, H. (1999). In‐group favouritism and the reflection of realistic dimensions of difference between national states in Central and Eastern European nationality stereotypes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 38(1), 85-102.
Poyrazli, S., Thukral, R. K., & Duru, E. (2010). International students race-ethnicity, personality and acculturative stress. International Journal of Psychology and Counselling, 2(2), 25-32.
Ram, M., Sanghera, B., Abbas, T., Barlow, G., & Jones, T. (2000). Ethnic minority business in comparative perspective: the case of the independent restaurant sector. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 26(3), 495-510.
Rieder, J. (1985). Canarsie. Harvard University Press.
Roy, B. (2013, June 12th). Benjamin Choi talks about rediscovering his roots through dragon boat racing. Retrieved from: http://canadianimmigrant.ca/featured/benjamin-choi-talks-about-rediscovering-his-roots-through-dragon-boat-racing
Rynes SL. (1991). Recruitment, job choice, and post-hire consequences: A call for new research directions. InDunnette MD, Hough LM (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 399–444). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Salgado, J. F. (2003). Predicting job performance using FFM and non‐FFM personality measures. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,76(3), 323-346.
Sandhu, D. S., & Asrabadi, B. R. (1994). Development of an acculturative stress scale for international students—preliminary findings. Psychological Reports, 75, 435–448
Santibáñez, F. (2002). The object image-schema and other dependent schemas. Atlantis, 183-201.
Saunds, O. (2011, May 19th). How Victoria Moreno accelerated her career. Retrieved from: http://canadianimmigrant.ca/work-and-education/howto-find-a-job/how-victoria-moreno-accelerated-her-career
Schatz, R. T., & Staub, E. (1997). Manifestations of blind and constructive patriotism: Personality correlates and individual-group relations. In D. Bar-Tal & E. Staub (Eds.), Patriotism in the lives of individuals and nations (pp. 229–245). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Schuman, H., Steeh, C., Bobo, L., & Krysan, M. (1997). Racial Attitudes in America, revised edition.
Shelton, J. N., Richeson, J. A., & Salvatore, J. (2005). Expecting to be the target of prejudice: Implications for interethnic interactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(9), 1189-1202.
Sleeboom, M. (2002). The power of national symbols: the credibility of a dragon’s efficacy. Nations and Nationalism, 8(3), 299-313.
Spence M. (1973). Job market signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87, 355–374.
Stangor, C, & Lange, J. E. (1994). Mental representations of social groups: Advances in understanding stereotypes and stereotyping. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 357-416.
Statistics Canada (2005). Financing Profile: Visible Minority Entrepreneurs. SME Financing Data Initiative. Available: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/061.nsf/vwapj/VisibleMinorityProfile_Eng.pdf/ $file/VisibleMinorityProfile_Eng.pdf
Statistics Canada (2007a). Financing Profile: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Ontario. SME Financing Data Initiative. Available: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/061.nsf/vwapj/ONProfile_ Eng.pdf/$file/ONProfile_Eng.pdf
Statistics Canada (2007b). Financing Profile: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Quebec. SME Financing Data Initiative. Available: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/061.nsf/vwapj/QCProfile _Eng.pdf/$file/QCProfile_Eng.pdf
Statistics Canada (2007c). Financing Profile: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in British Columbia. SME Financing Data Initiative. Available: https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/061.nsf/vwapj/ BCProfile_Eng.pdf/$file/BCProfile_Eng.pdf
Statistics Canada (2015). Population by year, by province and territory. CANSIM, table 051-0001. Ottawa, Ont: Statistics Canada.
Stayman, D. M., & Deshpande, R. (1989). Situational ethnicity and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 361-371.
Stephan, W. G., & Stephan. C. W. (1985). Intergroup anxiety. Journal of Social Issues, 41(3), 157-176.
Stephan, W. G., & Stephan, C. W. (1996). Intergroup Relations. Boulder, CO.
Stephan, W. G., & Stephan, C. W. (1996). Predicting prejudice. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20(3), 409-426.
Stephan, W. G., Ybarra, O., & Bachman, G. (1999). Prejudice toward immigrants1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29(11), 2221-2237.
Stewart, E., Belcourt, M., Peacock, M., Bohlander, G., & Snell, S. (2016). Essentials of managing human resources. (Sixth Canadian Edition). Scarborough, ON: Thomson.
Strauss, J., & Connerley, M. (2003). Demographics, personality, contact, and universal-diverse orientation: An exploratory examination. Human Resource Management, 42, 159 –174.
Sunagawa, K. (1966). Ryukyuan's Personal Law, The. Japanese Ann. Int'l L.,10, 46.
Swagler, M. A., & Jome, L. M. (2005). The Effects of Personality and Acculturation on the Adjustment of North American Sojourners in Taiwan.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(4), 527.
Swann, W. B., Jr. (1983). Self-verification: Bringing social reality into harmony with the self. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Social psychological perspectives on the se/f (Vol. 2, pp. 33-66). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Swann, W. B., Jr. (1990). To be adored or to be known: The interplay of self-enhancement and self-verification. In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Motivation and cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 408-448). New York: Guilford Press.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (2nd ed., pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Thompson, V. L. S. (1999). Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans. The Journal of Social Psychology, 139(6), 748-761.
Viki, G. T., & Calitri, R. (2008). Infrahuman out-group or suprahuman ingroup: The role of nationalism and patriotism in the infrahumanization of out-groups.European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(6), 1054-1061.
Vogt, W. P. (1997). Tolerance & education: Learning to live with diversity and difference. Sage Publications, Inc.
Waldinger, R. (1989). Structural opportunity or ethnic advantage? Immigrant business development in New York. International Migration Review, 48-72.
Wei, M., Heppner, P. P., Mallen, M., & Ku, T-Y. (2004, July). Perfectionism, approval, acculturative stress, and depression: Testing diathesis-stress model. Poster presented at the 112th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, HI.
Weintraub, S. (1983). Treating the causes: illegal immigration and US foreign economic policy.
Yinger, J. M. (1985). Ethnicity. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 1 1:151-80
Zakalik, R. A., & Wei, M. (2006). Adult attachment, perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation, and depression in gay males: Examining the mediation and moderation effects. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(3), 302.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top