Login | Register

Gain scheduling control and loop interactions in dual duct HVAC system


Gain scheduling control and loop interactions in dual duct HVAC system

Cao, Hanfei (2017) Gain scheduling control and loop interactions in dual duct HVAC system. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Cao_MASc_F2017.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Cao_MASc_F2017.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


This research focuses on gain scheduling control of a dual duct system and its local loop interactions. To reach these objectives, experiments were conducted in a dual duct system. The test facility consists three control loops. (cold air temperature control, hot air temperature control, and mixed air temperature control).
The steady state and dynamic characteristics of the dual duct system were studied. Two control strategies were employed to improve the system performance: (i) conventional PI control, and (ii) gain scheduling control. The experimental results subject to load disturbances (set-point changes and initial condition changes) showed that the performance of the gain scheduling controller is better than the conventional PI controller. However, it was found that the gain scheduling control method caused significant oscillations and took nearly 25 minutes to reach a stable final value under low load conditions. Therefore, an adaptive gain scheduling (AGS) controller was developed to improve the disturbance rejection properties of the controller. Experimental and simulation results show that the adaptive gain scheduling controller has dramatically increased controller performance under low load conditions.
The prioritization of control loops due to loop interactions was evaluated and the gain scheduling-adaptive controller was applied to the entire system to minimize loop interactions. The experimental results showed that, compared to conventional PI controller, the dynamic responses of adaptive gain scheduling controller are better.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Cao, Hanfei
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Building Engineering
Date:July 2017
Thesis Supervisor(s):Zaheeruddin, Mohammed
Keywords:HVAC experimental study/ gain scheduling control
ID Code:982742
Deposited By: Hanfei Cao
Deposited On:10 Nov 2017 14:37
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:55


[1] McCullagh, K.R., Green, G.H., and Chandra, S.S. 1969. An analysis of chilled water cooling dehumidifying coils using dynamic relationships. ASHRAE Transactions 75(2):200–09.
[2] Clark, D.R. 1985. Type 12: Cooling or dehumidifying coil. HVACSIM+ Reference Manual. National Bureau of Standards (now NIST), Gaithersburg, MD, pp. 63–68.
[3] Elmahdy, A.H., and Mitalas, G.P., 1977. A simple model for cooling and dehumidifying coils for use in calculating energy requirements for buildings. ASHRAE Transactions 83(2):103–17.
[4] Zheng, G.R. 1997. Dynamic Modeling and Global Optimal Operation of Multizone Variable Air Volume HVAC System. Ph.D Dissertation, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
[5] Wang, Y.W., Cai, W.J., et al. 2004. A simplified modeling of cooling coils for control and optimization of HVAC systems. Energy Conversion and Managements 45 (2004) 2915-2930.
[6] Jin, G.Y., Cai, W.J., Wang, Y.W., and Yao, Y. 2006. A simple dynamic model of cooling coil unit. Energy Conversion and Managements 47 (2006) 2659-2672.
[7] Yao, Y., and Liu, S.Q. 2008. The transfer function model for dynamic response of wet cooling coils. Energy Conversion and Managements 49 (2008) 3612-3621.
[8] Zheng, G.R., and Zaheer-uddin, M., 1999. Discharge air system: modeling and optimal control. International Journal of Energy Research 23 727-738 (1999).
[9] Tashtoush, B., Molhim, M., and Al-Rousan, M., 2005. Dynamic model of an HVAC sytem for control analysis. Energy 30 (2005) 1729-1745.
[10] Robinson, K.D. 1998. Damper control characteristics and mixing effectiveness of an air-handing unit combination mixing/filter box. ASHRAE Transactions 104(1998): 629.
[11] Becelaera, R.V., Sauer, H.J., and Finaish, F. 2005. Flow resistance characteristics of air flow control dampers. HVAC&R Research. January 2005 Volume 11.
[12] Fruehauf, P. S., Chien, I.L., and Lauritsen, M. D., ISA. 1994. Simplified IMC-PID tuning rules.Trans. 1994, 33, 43-59.
[13] Skogestad, S. (2003). Simple analytic rules for model reduction and PID controller tuning. Journal of Process Control, 13(4), 291-309.
[14] Ruel. M., 2000. A simple method to determine control valve performance and its impacts on control loop performance. Top Control Inc.
[15] Ãstrom, K. J., & HÃgglund, T. (2004). Revisiting the Ziegler-Nichols step response method for PID control. Journal of Process Control, 14(6), 635-650.
[16] Zhou., John Q., Claridge, David E., 2012. PI tuning and robustness analysis for air handler discharge air temperature control. Energy and Building. 44 (2012) 1-6.
[17] Lin, M. G., Lakshminarayanan, S., and Rangaiah, G. P. (2008). A comparative study of recent/popular PID tuning rules for stable, first-order plus dead time, single-input single-output processes. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 47(2), 344-368.
[18] Yamakawa, Y., Kamimura, K., Yamazaki, T., & Kurosu, S. (2009). Stability of temperature control in VAV systems. ASHRAE Transactions, 115(1), 613-621.
[19] Jette, I., Zaheeruddin M., and Fazio, P. PI-control of dual duct systems: manual tuning and control loop interaction. Energy Convers. Mgmt Vol. 39, No. 14, pp. 1471-1482, 1998
[20] Matusu, R., & Prokop, R. (2010). Experimental verification of design methods for conventional PI/PID controllers. WSEAS Transactions on Systems and Control, 5(5), 269-280.
[21] Warren, R. D., Navale, R. L., Nelson, R. M., & Klassen, C. J. (2009). Experimental measurement and uncertainty analysis on the energy performance of a chilled water cooling coil. , 115 PART 2 676-688.
[22] Sedaghati, A. (2006), A PI controller based on gain scheduling for synchronous generator. Turk J Elec Engin, VOL.14, NO.2 2006
[23] Zaky, M.S. and Ismaeil, E.M. (2008) Gain scheduling adaptive PI control of Hybrid Stepper Motor drives. Proceedings of the 14th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’10), Cairo University, Egypt, December 19-21, 2010, Paper ID 160.
[24] McQuiston, F.C., Parker, J.D. and Spitler, J.D., 2000. Heating, Ventilating and Air-
Conditioning: Analysis and Design. Fifth edition. John Wiley & Sons. Inc.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top