Login | Register

Age-related differences in Cognitive Plasticity of Executive Control Mechanisms: Exploring Transfer Effects Following iPad-based Dual-Task and N-Back Training


Age-related differences in Cognitive Plasticity of Executive Control Mechanisms: Exploring Transfer Effects Following iPad-based Dual-Task and N-Back Training

Houdeib, Ramzi (2018) Age-related differences in Cognitive Plasticity of Executive Control Mechanisms: Exploring Transfer Effects Following iPad-based Dual-Task and N-Back Training. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Houdeib_MA_S2018.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Houdeib_MA_S2018.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


Recent literature suggests that executive function (EF) is not a unitary construct but one that involves many executive control mechanisms (ECM), such as updating and divided attention. Some posit that cognitive training helps improve EF in younger (YA) and older (OA)
adults, but transfer effects, which refer to improvements in an untrained task, remain somewhat limited. This study examined the age-related differences in transfer effects following cognitive
training of ECM by comparing two training paradigms designed to involved distinct ECM. Thirty-three YA and 42 OA were randomly assigned to a n-back (NB) or dual-task (DT) training group for three weeks. Pre/post-training assessment involved the trained task and their respective transfer tasks. Age was used as a between-subject factor, while session (pre/post) and task condition (low, medium, high load), as within-subjects factors. Both training groups improved on their respective trained tasks and transfer task involving the same ECM (near-transfer). Transfer effects were also observed in a transfer task involving a different ECM (far-transfer). The DT group improved in the DT-transfer and one of the two NB tasks. The NB group improved in the NB-transfer and both DT tasks. Age-related differences in transfer were observed for the DT group, with the dual-task cost and 3-back accuracy of YA improving on the DT-transfer task and N-back task respectively, while OA only improved on the 1-back and 2-back. Overall, the results suggest that OA and YA benefited from ECM training and that these benefits generalized to untrained tasks tapping the same and other ECM.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Psychology
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Houdeib, Ramzi
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Date:29 August 2018
Thesis Supervisor(s):Bherer, Louis and Houdeib, Ramzi
Keywords:Cognitive training, Updating, Divided attention, N-back, Dual-task, Aging
ID Code:984506
Deposited On:16 Nov 2018 15:28
Last Modified:16 Nov 2018 15:28


Achtman, R. L., Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2008). Video games as a tool to train visual skills. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 26(4-5), 435-446.

Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?. Trends Cogn Sci, 4(11), 417-423.

Bahar-Fuchs, A., Clare, L., & Woods, B. (2013). Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(6), CD003260. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003260.pub2

Ballesteros, S., Kraft, E., Santana, S., & Tziraki, C. (2015). Maintaining older brain functionality: A targeted review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 55, 453-477. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.06.008

Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 65-94.

Barnett, S. M., & Ceci, S. J. (2002). When and where do we apply what we learn? A taxonomy for far transfer. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 612-637. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.128.4.612

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8(1), 77-100.

Belleville, S., & Bherer, L. (2012). Biomarkers of Cognitive Training Effects in Aging. Curr Transl Geriatr Exp Gerontol Rep, 1(2), 104-110. doi: 10.1007/s13670-012-0014-5

Benedict, R., & Brandt, J. (1997). Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R) / Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). Psychological Assessment Resources Inc.

Bherer, L., Kramer, A. F., Peterson, M. S., Colcombe, S., Erickson, K., & Becic, E. (2005). Training effects on dual-task performance: are there age-related differences in plasticity of attentional control? Psychol Aging, 20(4), 695-709. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.20.4.695

Bherer, L., Kramer, A. F., Peterson, M. S., Colcombe, S., Erickson, K., & Becic, E. (2008). Transfer effects in task-set cost and dual-task cost after dual-task training in older and younger adults: further evidence for cognitive plasticity in attentional control in late adulthood. Exp Aging Res, 34(3), 188-219. doi: 10.1080/03610730802070068

Bigorra, A., Garolera, M., Guijarro, S., & Hervas, A. (2016). Long-term far-transfer effects of working memory training in children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 25(8), 853-867. doi: 10.1007/s00787-015-0804-3

Blatter, K., & Cajochen, C. (2007). Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: methodological constraints, protocols, theoretical underpinnings. Physiol Behav, 90(2-3), 196-208. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.09.009

Bopp, K. L., & Verhaeghen, P. (2018). Aging and n-back performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 00(00), 1-12. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gby024/4944520

Borella, E., Carretti, B., Cantarella, A., Riboldi, F., Zavagnin, M., & De Beni, R. (2014). Benefits of training visuospatial working memory in young-old and old-old. Dev Psychol, 50(3), 714-727. doi: 10.1037/a0034293

Borella, E., Carretti, B., Riboldi, F., & De Beni, R. (2010). Working memory training in older adults: evidence of transfer and maintenance effects. Psychol Aging, 25(4), 767-778. doi: 10.1037/a0020683
Buschkuehl, M., Jaeggi, S. M., Hutchison, S., Perrig-Chiello, P., Dapp, C., Muller, M., ... Perrig, W. J. (2008). Impact of working memory training on memory performance in old-old adults. Psychol Aging, 23(4), 743-753. doi: 10.1037/a0014342

Cabeza, R. (2002). Hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults: The HAROLD model. Psychol Aging, 17(1), 85-100. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.17.1.85

Cahn-Weiner, D. A., Malloy, P. F., Boyle, P. A., Marran, M., & Salloway, S. (2000). Prediction of Functional Status from Neuropsychological Tests in Community-Dwelling Elderly Individuals. The Clinical Neuropsychologist (Neuropsychology, Development and Cognition: Section D), 14(2), 187-195. doi: 10.1076/1385-4046(200005)14:2;1-z;ft187

Cappell, K. A., Gmeindl, L., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (2010). Age differences in prefontal recruitment during verbal working memory maintenance depend on memory load. Cortex, 46(4), 462-473. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2009.11.009

Collette, F., Hogge, M., Salmon, E., & Van der Linden, M. (2006). Exploration of the neural substrates of executive functioning by functional neuroimaging. Neuroscience, 139(1), 209-221. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.05.035

Canada Institute for Health Information. (2011). Health care in Canada 2011: A focus on seniors and aging. Retrieved from https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/HCIC_2011_seniors_report_en.pdf

Dahlin, E., Neely, A. S., Larsson, A., Backman, L., & Nyberg, L. (2008b). Transfer of Learning after updating training mediated by the striatum. Science, 320, 2.

Dahlin, E., Nyberg, L., Backman, L., & Neely, A. S. (2008). Plasticity of executive functioning in young and older adults: immediate training gains, transfer, and long-term maintenance. Psychol Aging, 23(4), 720-730. doi: 10.1037/a0014296

Desjardins-Crépeau, L., Berryman, N., Fraser, S., Vu, T. T. M., Kergoat, M.-J., Li, K., . . . Bherer, L. (2016). Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults. Clin Interv Aging, Volume 11, 1287-1299. doi: 10.2147/cia.s115711

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annu Rev Psychol, 64, 135-168. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750

Duan, X., Wei, S., Wang, G., & Shi, J. (2010). The relationship between executive functions and intelligence on 11- to 12-year-old children. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 52(4), 419--431.

Duncan, J. (2010). The multiple-demand (MD) system of the primate brain: mental programs for intelligent behaviour. Trends Cogn Sci, 14(4), 172-179. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.01.004

Duncan, J., Johnson, R., Swale, M., & Freer, C. (1997). Frontal Lobe Deficits after Head Injury: Unity and Diversity of Function. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 14(5), 713-741. doi: 10.1080/026432997381420
Elliott, R. (2003). Executive functions and their disorders. British Medical Bulletin, 65, 49-59. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldg65.049

Erickson, K. I., Colcombe, S. J., Wadhwa, R., Bherer, L., Peterson, M. S., Scalf, P. E., . . . Kramer, A. F. (2007). Training-induced functional activation changes in dual-task processing: an FMRI study. Cereb Cortex, 17(1), 192-204. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhj137

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189-198.

Fraser, S., & Bherer, L. (2013). Age-related decline in divided-attention: from theoretical lab research to practical real-life situations. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci, 4(6), 623-640. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1252

Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2017). Unity and diversity of executive functions: Individual differences as a window on cognitive structure. Cortex, 86, 186-204. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2016.04.023

Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Corley, R. P., Young, S. E., DeFries, J. C., & Hewitt, J. K. (2006). Not all executive functions are related to intelligence. Psychol Sci, 17(2), 172-179.

Grady, C. (2012). The cognitive neuroscience of ageing. Nat Rev Neurosci, 13(7), 491-505. doi: 10.1038/nrn3256

Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2003). Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature, 423, 534-537.

Hartley, A. A., & Little, D. M. (1999). Age-related differences and similarities in dual-task interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 128(4), 416-449.

Hedden, T., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2004). Insights into the ageing mind: A view from cognitive neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5(2), 87-96. doi: 10.1038/nrn1323

Hein, G., & Schubert, T. (2004). Aging and input processing in dual-task situations. Psychol Aging, 19(3), 416-432. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.19.3.416

Heinzel, S., Lorenz, R. C., Brockhaus, W. R., Wustenberg, T., Kathmann, N., Heinz, A., & Rapp, M. A. (2014). Working memory load-dependent brain response predicts behavioral training gains in older adults. J Neurosci, 34(4), 1224-1233. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2463-13.2014

Jackson, T., Clemens, J., & Palacios, M. (2017). Canada’s aging population and implications for government finances. Fraser Institute. Retrieved from https://www.fraserinstitute.org/studies/canadas-aging-population-and-implications-for-government-finances

Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(19), 6829-6833. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0801268105

Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Shah, P. (2011). Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108(25), 10081-10086. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1103228108

Jurado, M. B., & Rosselli, M. (2007). The elusive nature of executive functions: a review of our current understanding. Neuropsychol Rev, 17(3), 213-233. doi: 10.1007/s11065-007-9040-z

Karbach, J., & Verhaeghen, P. (2014). Making working memory work: a meta-analysis of executive-control and working memory training in older adults. Psychol Sci, 25(11), 2027-2037. doi: 10.1177/0956797614548725

Kimberg, D. Y., & Farah, M. J. (1993). A unified account of cognitive impairements following frontal lobe damage: The role of working memory in complex organized behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 122(4), 411-428.

Kramer, A. F., Hahn, S., & Gopher, D. (1999). Task coordination and aging: Explorations of executive control processes in the task switching paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 101, 339-378.

Kramer, A. F., Humphrey, D. G., Larish, J. F., Logan, G. D., & Strayer, D. L. (1994). Aging and inhibition: Beyond a unitary view of inhibitory processing in attention. Psychol Aging, 9(4), 491-512.

Kundu, B., Sutterer, D. W., Emrich, S. M., & Postle, B. R. (2013). Strengthened effective connectivity underlies transfer of working memory training to tests of short-term memory and attention. J Neurosci, 33(20), 8705-8715. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5565-12.2013

Laguë-Beauvais, M., Brunet, J., Gagnon, L., Lesage, F., & Bherer, L. (2013). A fNIRS investigation of switching and inhibition during the modified Stroop task in younger and older adults. Neuroimage, 64, 485-495. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.09.042

Leshner, A. I., Landis, S., Stroud, C., & Downey, A. (2017). Preventing cognitive decline and dementia: A way forward. In A. Downey, C. Stroud, S. Landis & A. I. Leshner (Eds.), Preventing Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Way Forward. Washington (DC).

Leung, I. H. K., Walton, C. C., Hallock, H., Lewis, S. J. G., Valenzuela, M., & Lampit, A. (2015). Cognitive training in Parkinson disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Academy of Neurology, 85, 1843-1851.

Li, S. C., Schmiedek, F., Huxhold, O., Rocke, C., Smith, J., & Lindenberger, U. (2008). Working memory plasticity in old age: practice gain, transfer, and maintenance. Psychol Aging, 23(4), 731-742. doi: 10.1037/a0014343

Lussier, M., Brouillard, P., & Bherer, L. (2015). Limited Benefits of Heterogeneous Dual-Task Training on Transfer Effects in Older Adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci, 72(5), 801-812. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbv105

Lussier, M., Bugaiska, A., & Bherer, L. (2017). Specific transfer effects following variable priority dual-task training in older adults. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 35(2), 237-250. doi: 10.3233/RNN-150581

Lussier, M., Gagnon, C., & Bherer, L. (2012). An investigation of response and stimulus modality transfer effects after dual-task training in younger and older. Front Hum Neurosci, 6, 129. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00129

Lustig, C., Shah, P., Seidler, R., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (2009). Aging, training, and the brain: a review and future directions. Neuropsychol Rev, 19(4), 504-522. doi: 10.1007/s11065-009-9119-9

Maraver, M. J., Bajo, M. T., & Gomez-Ariza, C. J. (2016). Training on Working Memory and Inhibitory Control in Young Adults. Front Hum Neurosci, 10, 588. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00588

Mattay, V. S., Fera, F., Tessitore, A., Hariri, A. R., Berman, K. F., Das, S., . . . Weinberger, D. R. (2006). Neurophysiological correlates of age-related changes in working memory capacity. Neurosci Lett, 392(1-2), 32-37. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2005.09.025

McCabe, D. P., Roediger, H. L., McDaniel, M. A., Balota, D. A., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2010). The relationship between working memory capacity and executive functioning: evidence for a common executive attention construct. Neuropsychology, 24(2), 222-243. doi: 10.1037/a0017619

Melby-Lervåg, M., Redick, T. S., & Hulme, C. (2016). Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of "Far Transfer": Evidence From a Meta-Analytic Review. Perspect Psychol Sci, 11(4), 512-534. doi: 10.1177/1745691616635612

Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (2012). The Nature and Organization of Individual Differences in Executive Functions: Four General Conclusions. Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 21(1), 8-14. doi: 10.1177/0963721411429458

Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex "Frontal Lobe" tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cogn Psychol, 41(1), 49-100. doi: 10.1006/cogp.1999.0734

Morris, N., & Jones, D. M. (1990). Memory updating in working memory: The role of the central executive. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 10.

Nasreddine, Z.S., Phillips, N., Bédirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., Cummings, J. L., & Chertkow, H. (2005). The Montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA: A brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53(4), 695-699

Noelker, L. S., & Browdie, R. (2014). Sidney Katz, MD: a new paradigm for chronic illness and long-term care. Gerontologist, 54(1), 13-20. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnt086

Oberauer, K., Süß, H.-M., Wilhelm, O., & Wittman, W. W. (2003). The multiple faces of working memory: Storage, processing, supervision, and coordination. Intelligence, 31, 167-193.

Oei, A. C., & Patterson, M. D. (2015). Enhancing perceptual and attentional skills requires common demands between the action video games and transfer tasks. Front Psychol, 6, 113. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00113

Reed, S. K. (2011). Cognition: Theories and applications, ninth edition. Belmon, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Reitan, R. M. (1958). Validity of the trail making test as an indicator of organic brain damage. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271-276. doi: 10.2466/pms.1958.8.3.271

Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., & Cappell, K. A. (2008). Neurocognitive aging and the compensation hypothesis. Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 17(3), 177-182.

Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., & Park, D. C. (2010). Human neuroscience and the aging mind: a new look at old problems. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci, 65(4), 405-415. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbq035

Rigoli, D., Piek, J. P., Kane, R., & Oosterlaan, J. (2012). An examination of the relationship between motor coordination and executive functions in adolescents. Dev Med Child Neurol, 54(11), 1025-1031. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04403.x

Rose, S. A., Feldman, J. F., & Jankowski, J. J. (2011). Modeling a cascade of effects: the role of speed and executive functioning in preterm/full-term differences in academic achievement. Dev Sci, 14(5), 1161-1175. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01068.x

Royall, D. R., Lauterbach, E. C., Cummings, J. L., Reeves, A., Rummans, T. A., Kaufer, D. I., . . . Coffey, C. E. (2002). Executive control function: A review of its promise and challenges for clinical research. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 14, 377-405.

Sala, G., & Gobet, F. (2017). Does Far Transfer Exist? Negative Evidence From Chess, Music, and Working Memory Training. Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 26(6), 515-520. doi: 10.1177/0963721417712760

Saliasi, E., Geerligs, L., Lorist, M. M., & Maurits, N. M. (2014). Neural correlates associated with successful working memory performance in older adults as revealed by spatial ICA. PLoS One, 9(6), e99250. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099250

Salminen, T., Frensch, P., Strobach, T., & Schubert, T. (2016). Age-specific differences of dual n-back training. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn, 23(1), 18-39. doi: 10.1080/13825585.2015.1031723

Schubert, T., Liepelt, R., Kubler, S., & Strobach, T. (2017). Transferability of Dual-Task Coordination Skills after Practice with Changing Component Tasks. Front Psychol, 8, 956. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00956

Schubert, T., Strobach, T., & Karbach, J. (2014). New directions in cognitive training: on methods, transfer, and application. Psychol Res, 78(6), 749-755. doi: 10.1007/s00426-014-0619-8

Sebastian, M. V., Menor, J., & Elosua, M. R. (2006). Attentional Dysfunction of the Central Executive in Ad: Evidence from Dual Task and Perseveration Errors. Cortex, 42(7), 1015-1020. doi: 10.1016/s0010-9452(08)70207-7

Simons, D. J., Boot, W. R., Charness, N., Gathercole, S. E., Chabris, C. F., Hambrick, D. Z., & Stine-Morrow, E. A. (2016). Do "Brain-Training" Programs Work? Psychol Sci Public Interest, 17(3), 103-186. doi: 10.1177/1529100616661983

Smolker, H. R., Depue, B. E., Reineberg, A. E., Orr, J. M., & Banich, M. T. (2015). Individual differences in regional prefrontal gray matter morphometry and fractional anisotropy are associated with different constructs of executive function. Brain Struct Funct, 220(3), 1291-1306. doi: 10.1007/s00429-014-0723-y

Spierer, L., Chavan, C. F., & Manuel, A. L. (2013). Training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control. Front Hum Neurosci, 7, 427. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00427

Statistic-Canada. (2017). Seniors. Retrieved from https://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-402-x/2011000/chap/seniors-aines/seniors-aines-eng.htm

Stepankova, H., Lukavsky, J., Buschkuehl, M., Kopecek, M., Ripova, D., & Jaeggi, S. M. (2014). The malleability of working memory and visuospatial skills: a randomized controlled study in older adults. Dev Psychol, 50(4), 1049-1059. doi: 10.1037/a0034913

Thorell, L. B., Lindqvist, S., Bergman Nutley, S., Bohlin, G., & Klingberg, T. (2009). Training and transfer effects of executive functions in preschool children. Dev Sci, 12(1), 106-113. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00745.x

Tsuchida, A., & Fellows, L. K. (2012). Are core component processes of executive function dissociable within the frontal lobes? Evidence from humans with focal prefrontal damage. Cortex, 49(7), 1790-1800. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2012.10.014

Turner, G. R., & Spreng, R. N. (2012). Executive functions and neurocognitive aging: dissociable patterns of brain activity. Neurobiol Aging, 33(4), 826 e821-813. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.06.005

Van Gerven, P. W., Meijer, W. A., Prickaerts, J. H., & Van der Veen, F. M. (2008). Aging and focus switching in working memory: excluding the potential role of memory load. Exp Aging Res, 34(4), 367-378. doi: 10.1080/03610730802274165

Vaughan, L., & Giovanello, K. (2010). Executive function in daily life: Age-related influences of executive processes on instrumental activities of daily living. Psychol Aging, 25(2), 343-355. doi: 10.1037/a0017729

Verhaeghen, P., & Cerella, J. (2002). Aging, executive control, and attention: A review of meta-analyses. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 26, 849-857.

von Bastian, C. C., & Oberauer, K. (2014). Effects and mechanisms of working memory training: a review. Psychol Res, 78(6), 803-820. doi: 10.1007/s00426-013-0524-6

Wasylyshyn, C., Verhaeghen, P., & Sliwinski, M. J. (2011). Aging and task switching: a meta-analysis. Psychol Aging, 26(1), 15-20. doi: 10.1037/a0020912

Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.

Yesavage, J. A. (1988). Geriatric depression scale. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 24(4), 709-711.

Zelinski, E. M. (2009). Far transfer in cognitive training of older adults. Restor Neurol Neurosci, 27(5), 455-471. doi: 10.3233/RNN-2009-0495
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top