Login | Register

Developing Ultra-Short Screening Tools for Depression in Stroke Survivors


Developing Ultra-Short Screening Tools for Depression in Stroke Survivors

Herzig, Alyssa Jennifer Marion (2020) Developing Ultra-Short Screening Tools for Depression in Stroke Survivors. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Herzig_PhD_S2021.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Herzig_PhD_S2021.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


Background: National stroke guidelines recommend that all stroke survivors be screened for depression multiple times following stroke. However, compliance with screening guidelines is poor and persons with post stroke depression (PSD) remain under diagnosed and undertreated. Ultra-short PSD screening tools are recommended to increase feasibility of routine screening. Existing ultra-short depression screening tools were developed for primary care and have not shown sufficient sensitivity for screening PSD relative to gold-standard reference tests. Objectives: The principal objective was to determine what brief combinations of self-report mood questions can be used in ultra-short screening measures to accurately and feasibly screen for depression in stroke survivors, relative to a gold standard reference test for depression at different times post stroke. Method: This prospective study included a sample of 121 adults recruited from consecutive hospital admissions. At five time points within the first year following a stroke, participants were administered the current Major Depressive Episode diagnostic interview of the SCID-I/NP and completed questionnaires containing items assessing mood state, including The Stroke Specific Geriatric Depression Scale, The Mental Health Index, The Stroke Impact Scale version 3.0, and The EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire. This author developed and followed a novel protocol for systematically comparing single items and two-item combinations for their abilities to accurately detect diagnoses of major, minor, and any depression according to the SCID-I/NP gold-standard measure. Results and conclusions: Results indicate that two-item screening tools containing items assessing mood state can accurately screen for depressive disorders and that the accuracy of ultra-short index tests for PSD are time-dependent. Results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that different screening questions are required at different time points following stroke. This study concludes that continued development of screening tools can contribute to minimizing the substantial negative impacts and costs of PSD through closing the gap between actual practice and best practice in PSD screening.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Psychology
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Herzig, Alyssa Jennifer Marion
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Date:1 October 2020
Thesis Supervisor(s):Miller, Syd
Keywords:Post Stroke Depression; Depression; Screening Test; Assessment; Diagnostic Accuracy Study; Ultra-Short Screening Tool;
ID Code:987832
Deposited By: Alyssa Jennifer Marion Herzig
Deposited On:29 Jun 2021 20:42
Last Modified:29 Jun 2021 20:42


Aben, I., Lodder, J., Honig, A., Lousberg, R., Boreas, A., & Verhey, F. (2006). Focal or generalized vascular brain damage and vulnerability to depression after stroke: A 1-year prospective follow-up study. International Psychogeriatrics, 18(1), 19‒35. doi:10.1017/S104161020500270X
Aben, I., Verhey, F., Strik, J., Lousberg, R., Lodder, J., & Honig, A. (2003). A comparative study into the one-year cumulative incidence of depression after stroke and myocardial infarction. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 74(5), 581‒585. doi:10.1136/jnnp.74.5.581
Adams, G. F. & Hurwitz, L. J. (1963). Mental barriers to recovery from strokes. Lancet, 282(7307), 533–537. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(63)92636-9
Agrell, B., & Dehlin, O. (1989). Comparison of six depression rating scales in geriatric stroke patients. Stroke, 20(9), 1190‒1194. doi:10.1161/01.STR.20.9.1190
Alexopoulos, G. S., Wilkins, V. M., Marino, P., Kanellopoulos, D., Reding, M., Sirey, J. A., . . . & Kiosses, D. N. (2012). Ecosystem focused therapy in poststroke depression: A preliminary study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(10), 1053‒1060. doi:10.1002/gps.2822
Allison, P. D. (2003). Missing data techniques for structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(4), 545‒557. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.112.4.545
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Rev. 3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Rev. 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Andersen, G., Vestergaard, K., & Lauritzen, L. (1994). Effective treatment of poststroke depression with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Stroke, 25(6), 1099‒1104. doi:10.1161/01.STR.25.6.1099
Andersen, G., Vestergaard, K., Ingemann‐Nielsen, M., & Lauritzen, L. (1995). Risk factors for post‐stroke depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 92(3), 193‒198. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1995.tb09567.x
Anderson, C., Laubscher, S., & Burns, R. (1996). Validation of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire among stroke patients. Stroke, 27(10), 1812‒1816. doi:10.1161/01.STR.27.10.1812
Ayerbe, L., Ayis, S., Crichton, S., Wolfe, C. D., & Rudd, A. G. (2013). The natural history of depression up to 15 years after stroke: The South London stroke register. Stroke, 44(4), 1105–1110. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.679340
Ayerbe, L., Ayis, S., Wolfe, C. D., & Rudd, A. G. (2013). Natural history, predictors and outcomes of depression after stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(1), 14-21. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.107664
Ayerbe, L., Ayis, S., Rudd, A. G., Heuschmann, P. U., & Wolfe, C. D. (2011). Natural history, predictors, and associations of depression 5 years after stroke: The South London stroke register. Stroke, 42(7), 1907–1911. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.605808
Balu, S. (2009). Differences in psychometric properties, cut-off scores, and outcomes between the Barthel Index and Modified Rankin Scale in pharmacotherapy-based stroke trials: systematic literature review. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 25(6), 1329‒1341. doi:10.1185/03007990902875877
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). BDI-II, Beck depression inventory: Manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. doi:10.1037/t00742-000
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (2000). Manual for the Beck depression inventory - Fast screen for medical patients. San Antonio TX: Psychological Corporation.
Beck, A. T., Ward, C., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). Beck depression inventory (BDI). Archives of General Psychiatry, 4(6), 561‒571.
Beekman, A. T. F., Penninx, B. W. J. H., Deeg, D. J. H., Ormel, J., Smit, J. H., Braam, A. W., & Van Tilburg, W. (1998). Depression in survivors of stroke: a community-based study of prevalence, risk factors and consequences. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33(10), 463-470. doi:10.1007/s001270050080
Bennett, H. E., & Lincoln, N. B. (2006). Potential screening measures for depression and anxiety after stroke. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 13(9), 401–406. doi:10.12968/ijtr.2006.13.9.21784
Berg, A., Lönnqvist, J., Palomäki, H., & Kaste, M. (2009). Assessment of depression after stroke: A comparison of different screening instruments. Stroke, 40(2), 523‒529. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.527705
Berg, A., Palomäki, H., Lehtihalmes, M., Lönnqvist, J., & Kaste, M. (2003). Poststroke depression: An 18-month follow-up. Stroke, 34(1), 138–143. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000048149.84268.07
Bhogal, S. K., Teasell, R., Foley, N., & Speechley, M. (2004). Lesion location and poststroke depression: Systematic review of the methodological limitations in the literature. Stroke, 35(3), 794–802. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000117237.98749.26
Bossuyt, P. M., Reitsma, J. B., Bruns, D. E., Gatsonis, C. A., Glasziou, P. P., Irwig, L., . . . & Kressel, H. Y. (2015). STARD 2015: An updated list of essential items for reporting diagnostic accuracy studies. Radiology, 277(3), 826-832. doi:10.1148/radiol.2015151516
Bowen, A., Knapp, P., Hoffman, A., & Lowe, D. (2005). Psychological services for people with stroke: Compliance with the UK National Clinical Guidelines. Clinical Rehabilitation, 19(3), 323–330. doi:10.1191/0269215505cr799oa
Burton, L. J., & Tyson, S. (2015). Screening for mood disorders after stroke: A systematic review of psychometric properties and clinical utility. Psychological Medicine, 45(1), 29-49. doi:10.1017/S0033291714000336
Burton, L. J., Tyson, S., & McGovern, A. (2013). Staff perceptions of using outcome measures in stroke rehabilitation. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35(10), 828–834. doi:10.3109/09638288.2012.709305
Bush, B. A. (1998). Longitudinal assessment of poststroke depression: The stability of the factor structure of the CES-D in the first year poststroke. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58(12-B), p. 6802.
Bushnik, T. (2011). Older Americans’ resources and services multidimensional functional assessment questionnaire. In J. S. Kreutzer, J. DeLuca, & V. Caplan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology (pp. 132‒203). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3

Cameron, J. I., O’Connell, C., Foley, N., Salter, K., Booth, R., Boyle, R., . . . & Lindsay, P. (2016). Canadian stroke best practice recommendations: Managing transitions of care following stroke, guidelines update 2016. International Journal of Stroke, 11(7), 807–822. doi:10.1177/1747493016660102
Canadian Stroke Network. (2011). The quality of stroke care in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Author.
Carod-Artal, J., Egido, J. A., González, J. L., & Varela de Seijas, E. (2000). Quality of life among stroke survivors evaluated 1 year after stroke: Experience of a stroke unit. Stroke, 31(12), 2995-3000. doi:10.1161/01.STR.31.12.2995
Carter, L. T., Oliveira, D. O., Duponte, J., & Lynch, S. V. (1988). The relationship of cognitive skills performance to activities of daily living in stroke patients. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42(7), 449–455. doi:10.5014/ajot.42.7.449
Chemerinski, E., Robinson, R. G., Arndt, S., & Kosier, J. T. (2001). The effect of remission of poststroke depression on activities of daily living in a double-blind randomized treatment study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189(7), 421–425. doi:10.1097/00005053-200107000-00002
Chen, Y., Guo, J. J., Zhan, S., & Patel, N. C. (2006). Treatment effects of antidepressants in patients with post-stroke depression: A meta-analysis. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 40(12), 2115‒2122. doi:10.1345/aph.1H389
Cinamon, J. S., Finch, L., Miller, S., Higgins, J., & Mayo, N. (2011). Preliminary evidence for the development of a stroke specific geriatric depression scale. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(2), 188–198. doi:10.1002/gps.2513
Clark, M. S., & Smith, D. S. (1998). The effects of depression and abnormal illness behaviour on outcome following rehabilitation from stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 12(1), 73‒80. doi:10.1191/026921598669567216
Collin, S. J., Tinson, D., & Lincoln, N. B. (1987). Depression after stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 1(1), 27‒32. doi:10.1177/026921558700100107
Côté, R., Battista, R. N., Wolfson, C., Boucher, J., Adam, J., & Hachinski, V. (1989). The Canadian Neurological Scale: Validation and reliability assessment. Neurology, 39(5), 638‒643. doi:10.1212/WNL.39.5.638
Côté, R., Hachinski, V. C., Shurvell, B. L., Norris, J. W., & Wolfson, C. (1986). The Canadian Neurological Scale: A preliminary study in acute stroke. Stroke, 17(4), 731‒737. doi:10.1161/01.STR.17.4.731
Coulter, D. M., & Edwards, I. R. (1990). Mienserin and agranulocytosis in New Zealand. Lancet, 336(8718), 785‒787. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)93248-N
Coupland, C. A. C., Dhiman, P., Barton, G., Morriss, R., Arthur, A., Sach, T., & Hippisley-Cox, J. (2011). A study of the safety and harms of antidepressant drugs for older people: A cohort study using a large primary care database. Health Technology Assessment, 15(28), 1‒202. doi:10.3310/hta15280
de Abajo, F. J., Rodríguez, L. A. G., & Montero, D. (1999). Association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Population based case-control study. British Medical Journal, 319(7217), 1106‒1109. doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7217.1106
de Man-van Ginkel, J. M., Hafsteinsdóttir, T., Lindeman, E., Burger, H., Grobbee, D., & Schuurmans, M. (2012). An efficient way to detect poststroke depression by subsequent administration of a 9-item and a 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Stroke, 43(3), 854–856. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.640276
DeLong, E. R., DeLong, D. M., & Clarke-Pearson, D. L. (1988). Comparing the areas under two or more correlated receiver operating characteristic curves: A nonparametric approach. Biometrics, 44(3), 837–845. doi:10.2307/2531595
Demirtas, H., Freels, S. A., & Yucel, R. M. (2008). Plausibility of multivariate normality assumption when multiply imputing non-Gaussian continuous outcomes: A simulation assessment. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 78(1), 69–84. doi:10.1080/10629360600903866
Diller, L., & Bishop, D. S. (1995). Depression and stroke. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 2(2), 44–55. doi:10.1080/10749357.1995.11754069
Dorman, P., Slattery, J., Farrell, B., Dennis, M., & Sandercock, P. (1998). Qualitative comparison of the reliability of health status assessments with the EuroQol and SF-36 questionnaires after stroke. Stroke, 29(1), 63‒68. doi:10.1161/01.STR.29.1.63
Dorman, P. J., Waddell, F., Slattery, J., Dennis, M., & Sandercock, P. (1997a). Is the EuroQol a valid measure of health-related quality of life after stroke? Stroke, 28(10), 1876‒1882. doi:10.1161/01.STR.28.10.1876
Dorman, P. J., Waddell, F., Slattery, J., Dennis, M., & Sandercock, P. (1997b). Are proxy assessments of health status after stroke with the EuroQol questionnaire feasible, accurate, and unbiased? Stroke, 28(10), 1883‒1887. doi:10.1161/01.STR.28.10.1883
Duncan, P. W., Bode, R. K., Lai, S. M., Perera, S., & Glycine Antagonist in Neuroprotection Americas Investigators. (2003). Rasch analysis of a new stroke-specific outcome scale: The Stroke Impact Scale. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(7), 950–963. doi:10.1016/S0003-9993(03)00035-2
Duncan, P. W., Lai, S. M., Wallace, D., Embretson, S., Johnson, D., & Studenski, S. (1999). Stroke impact scale version 3.0. Kansas City, MO: University of Kansas Medical Center.
Eskes, G. A., Lanctôt, K. L., Herrmann, N., Lindsay, P., Bayley, M., Bouvier, L., ... & Gubitz, G. (2015). Canadian stroke best practice recommendations: Mood, cognition and fatigue following stroke practice guidelines, update 2015. International Journal of Stroke, 10(7), 1130-1140. doi:10.1111/ijs.12557
Eskes, G., & Salter, K. (2013). Mood and cognition in patients following stroke. In M. Lindsay, G. Gubitz, M. Bayley, & S. Phillips (Eds.) Canadian best practice recommendations for stroke care (4th ed.) Chapter 7 (pp. 7-36). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Stroke Network.
Fang, J., & Cheng, Q. (2009). Etiological mechanisms of post-stroke depression: A review. Neurological Research, 31(9), 904–909. doi:10.1179/174313209X385752
Finch, E., Brooks, D., & Stratford, P. W. (2002). Physical rehabilitation outcome measures: A guide to enhanced clinical decision making (2nd ed.). Hamilton, ON: BC Decker. doi:10.2310/6640.2003.35271
First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. (2002). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR axis I disorders – Non-Patient edition (SCID-I/NP). New York, NY: State Psychiatric Institute.
Fisher, R. H., & Zorzitto, M. L. (1983). Placement problem: Diagnosis, disease or term of denigration? Canadian Medical Association Journal, 129(4), 331‒334.

Fonda, S. J., Wallace, R. B., & Herzog, A. R. (2001). Changes in driving patterns and worsening depressive symptoms among older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56(6), S343‒S351. doi:10.1093/geronb/56.6.S343
Gainotti, G., Antonucci, G., Marra, C., & Paolucci, S. (2001). Relation between depression after stroke, antidepressant therapy, and functional recovery. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 71(2), 258–261. doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.2.258
Gibson, L., MacLennan, W. J., Gray, C., & Pentland, B. (1991). Evaluation of a comprehensive assessment battery for stroke patients. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 14(2), 93–100. doi:10.1097/00004356-199106000-00001
Gillen, R., Tennen, H., McKee, T. E., Gernert-Dott, P., & Affleck, G. (2001). Depressive symptoms and history of depression predict rehabilitation efficiency in stroke patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(12), 1645‒1649. doi:10.1053/apmr.2001.26249
Gillham, S., & Clark, L. (2011). Psychological care after stroke: Improving stroke services for people with cognitive and mood disorders. Retrieved from https://www.nice.org.uk/ media/default/sharedlearning/531_strokepsychologicalsupportfinal.pdf
Gilson, R. (2012). Validation of the distress thermometer among stroke survivors (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southampton, England). Retrieved from https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/359648/
Glasziou, P., Irwig, L., Bain, C., & Colditz, G. (2001). Systematic reviews in health care: A practical guide. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Goldberg, D. P., & Williams, P. (1988). User's guide to the general health questionnaire. Basingstoke, England: NFER-Nelson.
Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549‒576. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085530
Granger, C. V., & Hamilton, B. B. (1990). Measurement of stroke rehabilitation outcome in the 1980s. Stroke, 21(9 Suppl), II46–II47.
Hackett, M. L., & Pickles, K. (2014). Part I: Frequency of depression after stroke: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. International Journal of Stroke, 9(8), 1017‒1025. doi:10.1111/ijs.12357
Hackett, M. L., & Anderson, C. S. (2005). Treatment options for post-stroke depression in the elderly. Aging Health, 1(1), 95-105. doi:10.2217/1745509X.1.1.95
Hackett, M. L., Anderson, C. S., House, A., & Xia, J. (2008). Interventions for treating depression after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4), CD003437. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003437.pub3
Harel, O., & Zhou, X. H. (2007). Multiple imputation: Review of theory, implementation and software. Statistics in Medicine, 26(16), 3057‒3077. doi:10.1002/sim.2787
Hart, S., & Morris, R. (2008). Screening for depression after stroke: An exploration of professionals' compliance with guidelines. Clinical Rehabilitation, 22(1), 60–70. doi:10.1177/0269215507079841
Haun, J., Rittman, M., & Sberna, M. (2008). The continuum of connectedness and social isolation during post stroke recovery. Journal of Aging Studies, 22(1), 54‒64. doi:10.1016/j.jaging.2007.03.001
Hays, R. D., Sherbourne, C. D., & Mazel, R. M. (1993). The rand 36‐item health survey 1.0. Health Economics, 2(3), 217‒227. doi:10.1002/hec.4730020305
Healey, A. K., Kneebone, I. I., Carroll, M., & Anderson, S. J. (2008). A preliminary investigation of the reliability and validity of the brief assessment schedule depression cards and the beck depression inventory‐fast screen to screen for depression in older stroke survivors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(5), 531‒536. doi:10.1002/gps.1933
Henkel, V., Mergl, R., Kohnen, R., Allgaier, A. K., Möller, H. J., & Hegerl, U. (2004). Use of brief depression screening tools in primary care: Consideration of heterogeneity in performance in different patient groups. General Hospital Psychiatry, 26(3), 190–198. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2004.02.003
Herrmann, N., Black, S. E., Lawrence, J., Szekely, C., & Szalai, J. P. (1998). The Sunnybrook stroke study: A prospective study of depressive symptoms and functional outcome. Stroke, 29(3), 618‒624. doi:10.1161/01.STR.29.3.618
Hinkle, J. L. (1998). Biological and behavioral correlates of stroke and depression. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 30(1), 25‒31. doi:10.1097/01376517-199802000-00004
Hochstenbach, J., Prigatano, G., & Mulder, T. (2005). Patients’ and relatives’ reports of disturbances 9 months after stroke: Subjective changes in physical functioning, cognition, emotion, and behavior. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86(8), 1587‒1593. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.11.050
Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied logistic regression (2nd ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/0471722146
House, A., Knapp, P., Bamford, J., & Vail, A. (2001). Mortality at 12 and 24 months after stroke may be associated with depressive symptoms at 1 month. Stroke, 32(3), 696‒701. doi:10.1161/01.STR.32.3.696
Huang, Y. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis of a community –based stroke prevention program in Bao Shan District, Shanghai, China. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health, 2(9), 307-316. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266456233_Cost-Benefit_Analysis_of_a_ Community-Based_Stroke_Prevention_Program_in_Bao_Shan_District_Shanghai_China
Iacoboni, M., Padovani, A., Di Piero, V., & Lenzi, G. L. (1995). Post-stroke depression: Relationships with morphological damage and cognition over time. The Italian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 16(3), 209‒216. doi:10.1007/BF02282991
Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party. (2002). Concise report on the National sentinel stroke audit 2001/2. London, England: Royal College of Physicians.
Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party. (2004). Concise report on the National sentinel stroke audit 2004. London, England: Royal College of Physicians.
Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party. (2008). National clinical guidelines for stroke (2nd ed.). London, England: Royal College of Physicians.
Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party. (2016) National clinical guidelines for stroke, 5th edition.
London: Royal College of Physicians.
Jackson, N., & Alshekhlee, A. (2015). Abstract T P310: PHQ-2 Screens for early depression in acute stroke. Stroke, 46(Suppl_1), ATP310.

Johnson, J. L., Minarik, P. A., Nyström, K. V., Bautista, C., & Gorman, M. J. (2006). Poststroke depression incidence and risk factors: An integrative literature review. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 38(4 Suppl), S316-S327. doi:10.1097/01376517-200609000-00008
Jorge, R. E., Robinson, R. G., Arndt, S., & Starkstein, S. (2003). Mortality and poststroke depression: A placebo-controlled trial of antidepressants. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(10), 1823–1829. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.10.1823
Jørgensen, L., Engstad, T., & Jacobsen, B. K. (2002). Higher incidence of falls in long-term stroke survivors than in population controls: Depressive symptoms predict falls after stroke. Stroke, 33(2), 542‒547. doi:10.1161/hs0202.102375
Jun, E.M., Roh, Y.H., & Kim, M.J. (2013). The effect of music movement therapy on physical and psychological states of stroke patients. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22(1-2) 22-31. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04243.x. Epub 2012 Sep 17
Karamchandani, R. R., Vahidy, F., Bajgur, S., Vu, K. Y. T., Choi, H. A., Hamilton, R. K., . . . & Savitz, S. I. (2015). Early depression screening is feasible in hospitalized stroke patients. PloS One, 10(6), e0128246. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128246
Kauhanen, M. L., Korpelainen, J. T., Hiltunen, P., Brusin, E., Mononen, H., Mӓӓttӓ, R., . . . & Myllylӓ, V. V. (1999). Poststroke depression correlates with cognitive impairment and neurological deficits. Stroke, 30(9), 1875‒1880. doi:10.1161/01.STR.30.9.1875
Kessler, R. C., Barker, P. R., Colpe, L. J., Epstein, J. F., Gfroerer, J. C., Hiripi, E., . . . & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2003). Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(2), 184‒189. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.60.2.184
Kim, P., Warren, S., Madill, H., & Hadley, M. (1999). Quality of life of stroke survivors. Quality of Life Research, 8(4), 293‒301. doi:10.1023/A:100892743
King, R. B. (1996). Quality of life after stroke. Stroke, 27(9), 1467‒1472. doi:10.1161/01.STR.27.9.1467
Kitsos, G., Harris, D., Pollack, M., & Hubbard, I. J. (2011). Assessments in Australian stroke rehabilitation units: A systematic review of the post-stroke validity of the most frequently used. Disability and Rehabilitation, 33(25-26), 2620‒2632. doi:10.3109/09638288.2011.575526
Koenig, H. G. (1996). An abbreviated mini‐mental state exam for medically ill older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44(2), 215‒216. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1996.tb02449.x
Kotila, M., Numminen, H., Waltimo, O., & Kaste, M. (1999). Post‐stroke depression and functional recovery in a population‐based stroke register. The Finnstroke study. European Journal of Neurology, 6(3), 309‒312. doi:10.1046/j.1468-1331.1999.630309.x
Kotila, M., Waltimo, O., Niemi, M. L., Laaksonen, R., & Lempinen, M. (1984). The profile of recovery from stroke and factors influencing outcome. Stroke, 15(6), 1039‒1044. doi:10.1161/01.STR.15.6.1039
Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2003). The patient health questionnaire-2: Validity of a two-item depression screener. Medical care, 41(11), 1284‒1292. doi:10.1097/01.MLR.0000093487.78664.3C
Krueger, H., Koot, J., Hall, R. E., O’Callaghan, C., Bayley, M., & Corbett, D. (2015). Prevalence of individuals experiencing the effects of stroke in Canada: Trends and projections. Stroke, 46(8), 2226–2231. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009616
Krueger, H., Lindsay, P., Cote, R., Kapral, M. K., Kaczorowski, J., & Hill, M. D. (2012). Cost avoidance associated with optimal stroke care in Canada. Stroke, 43(8), 2198–2206. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.646091
Kutlubaev, M. A., & Hackett, M. L. (2014). Part II: Predictors of depression after stroke and impact of depression on stroke outcome: An updated systematic review of observational studies. International Journal of Stroke, 9(8), 1026-1036. doi:10.1111/ijs.12356
Lachs, M. S., Feinstein, A. R., Cooney, L. M., Drickamer, M. A., Marottoli, R. A., Pannill, F. C., & Tinetti, M. E. (1990). A simple procedure for general screening for functional disability in elderly patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 112(9), 699–706. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-112-9-699
Lanctôt, K. L., Lindsay, M. P., Smith, E. E., Sahlas, D. J., Foley, N., Gubitz, G., . . . & Herrmann, N. (2019). Canadian stroke best practice recommendations: Mood, cognition and fatigue following stroke, update 2019. International Journal of Stroke, 10(7), 1130-1140. doi:10.1177/1747493019847334
Lightbody, C. E., Auton, M., Baldwin, R., Gibbon, B., Hamer, S., Leathley, M. J., . . . & Watkins, C. L. (2007). The use of nurses' and carers’ observations in the identification of poststroke depression. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(6), 595‒604. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04508.x
Lincoln, N. B., & Flannaghan, T. (2003). Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy for depression following stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Stroke, 34(1), 111‒115. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000044167.44670.55
Lincoln, N. B., Nicholl, C. R., Flannaghan, T., Leonard, M., & Van der Gucht, E. (2003). The validity of questionnaire measures for assessing depression after stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 17(8), 840‒846. doi:10.1191/0269215503cr687oa
Lindsay, M. P, Gubitz, G., Bayley, M., & Phillips, S. (Editors). (2013). Chapter 7: Mood and
Cognition in Patients Following Stroke. In Lindsay, M. P., Gubitz, G., Bayley, M., Hill, M. D., Davies-Schinkel, C., Singh, S., and Phillips, S. (Editors) On behalf of the Canadian Stroke Strategy Best Practices and Standards Writing Group. Canadian Best Practice Recommendations for Stroke Care (4th ed.) Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Stroke Network, 2013. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ba28/b9ed17db2e0c2c9c2a779e5517b249204f79.pdf
Liu, B., Anderson, G., Mittmann, N., To, T., Axcell, T., & Shear, N. (1998). Use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants and risk of hip fractures in elderly people. Lancet, 351(9112), 1303‒1307. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)09528-7
Mahoney, F. I., & Barthel, D. W. (1965). Functional evaluation: The Barthel Index: A simple index of independence useful in scoring improvement in the rehabilitation of the chronically ill. Maryland State Medical Journal, 14, 61–65.
Mahoney, J., Drinka, T. J., Abler, R., Gunter‐Hunt, G., Matthews, C., Gravenstein, S., & Carnes, M. (1994). Screening for depression: Single question versus GDS. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42(9), 1006–1008. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1994.tb06597.x
Management of Stroke Rehabilitation Working Group (2010). VA/DOD clinical practice guideline for the management of stroke rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 47(9), 1.
Meader, N., Moe-Byrne, T., Llewellyn, A., & Mitchell, A. J. (2014). Screening for poststroke major depression: A meta-analysis of diagnostic validity studies. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 85(2), 198‒206. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-304194
Mitchell, A. J., & Coyne, J. C. (2007). Do ultra-short screening instruments accurately detect depression in primary care? A pooled analysis and meta-analysis of 22 studies. British Journal of General Practice, 57(535), 144–151.
Mitchell, P. H., Veith, R. C., Becker, K. J., Buzaitis, A., Cain, K. C., Fruin, M., . . . & Teri, L. (2009). Brief psychosocial–behavioral intervention with antidepressant reduces poststroke depression significantly more than usual care with antidepressant: Living well with stroke: Randomized, controlled trial. Stroke, 40(9), 3073‒3078. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.549808
Morris, P. L., Robinson, R. G., Andrzejewski, P., Samuels, J., & Price, T. R. (1993). Association of depression with 10-year poststroke mortality. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(1), 124‒129. doi:10.1176/ajp.150.1.124
Morris, R., Jones, J., Wilcox, J., & Cole, S. (2012). Depression and anxiety screening after stroke: Adherence to guidelines and future directions. Disability and Rehabilitation, 34(9), 733‒739. doi:10.3109/09638288.2011.619623
Morrison, V., Pollard, B., Johnston, M., & MacWalter, R. (2005). Anxiety and depression 3 years following stroke: demographic, clinical, and psychological predictors. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 59(4), 209-213. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.02.019
Mulherin, S. A., & Miller, W. C. (2002). Spectrum bias or spectrum effect? Subgroup variation in diagnostic test evaluation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 137(7), 598‒602. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-137-7-200210010-00011
Narushima, K., Chan, K. L., Kosier, J. T., & Robinson, R. G. (2003). Does cognitive recovery after treatment of poststroke depression last? A 2-year follow-up of cognitive function associated with poststroke depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(6), 1157–1162. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.6.1157
National Audit Office (2010). Tackling inequalities in life expectancy in areas with the worst health deprivation. London, England: National Audit Office.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2004). Depression: Management of depression in primary and secondary care. London, England: Author. Retrieved from http://www.scamfyc.org/documentos/depresion%20NICE.pdf
National Stroke Foundation. (2010). Clinical guidelines for stroke management 2010.
Melbourne, Australia: Author. Retrieved from https://www.pedro.org.au/wp-content/uploads/CPG_stroke.pdf
National Stroke Foundation. (2017). Clinical guidelines for stroke management 2017.
Melbourne, Australia: Author. Retrieved from
Ostir, G. V., Berges, I. M., Ottenbacher, A., & Ottenbacher, K. J. (2011). Patterns of change in depression after stroke. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59(2), 314‒320. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03266.x
Ouimet, M. A., Primeau, F., & Cole, M. G. (2001). Psychosocial risk factors in poststroke depression: A systematic review. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46(9), 819‒828. doi:10.1177/070674370104600905
Paolucci, S., Antonucci, G., Grasso, M. G., Morelli, D., Troisi, E., Coiro, P., . . . & Bragoni, M. (2001). Post-stroke depression, antidepressant treatment and rehabilitation results. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 12(3), 264‒271. doi:10.1159/000047714
Paolucci, S., Antonucci, G., Pratesi, L., Traballesi, M., Grasso, M. G., & Lubich, S. (1999). Poststroke depression and its role in rehabilitation of inpatients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(9), 985‒990. doi:10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90048-5
Paolucci, S., Gandolfo, C., Provinciali, L., Torta, R., Sommacal, S., DESTRO Study Group, & Toso, V. (2005). Quantification of the risk of poststroke depression: The Italian multicenter observational study DESTRO. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112(4), 272‒278. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00590.x
Paradiso, S., Ohkubo, T., & Robinson, R. G. (1997). Vegetative and psychological symptoms associated with depressed mood over the first two years after stroke. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 27(2), 137–157. doi:10.2190/BWJA-KQP3-7VUY-D06T
Parikh, R. M., Eden, D. T., Price, T. R., & Robinson, R. G. (1989). The sensitivity and specificity of the Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale in screening for post-stroke depression. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 18(2), 169‒181. doi:10.2190/BH75-EUYA-4FM1-J7QA
Parikh, R. M., Robinson, R. G., Lipsey, J. R., Starkstein, S. E., Fedoroff, J. P., & Price, T. R. (1990). The impact of poststroke depression on recovery in activities of daily living over a 2-year follow-up. Archives of Neurology, 47(7), 785–789. doi:10.1001/archneur.1990.00530070083014
Paveza, G. J., Cohen, D., Blaser, C. J., & Hagopian, M. (1990). A brief form of the mini-mental state examination for use in community care settings. Behavior, Health, & Aging, 1(2), 133‒139.
Pohjasvaara, T., Vataja, R., Leppävuori, A., Kaste, M., & Erkinjuntti, T. (2001). Depression is an independent predictor of poor long‐term functional outcome post‐stroke. European Journal of Neurology, 8(4), 315‒319. doi:10.1046/j.1468-1331.2001.00182.x
Powers, W. J., Rabinstein, A. A., Ackerson, T., Adeoye, O. M., Bambakidis, N. C., Becker, K., ...
& Jauch, E. C. (2018). 2018 guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 49(3). doi:10.1161/STR.0000000000000163
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385‒401. doi:10.1177/014662167700100306
Ramasubbu, R., Robinson, R. G., Flint, A. J., Kosier, T., & Price, T. R. (1998). Functional impairment associated with acute poststroke depression: The Stroke data bank study. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(1), 26‒33. doi:10.1176/jnp.10.1.26
Reynolds, C. F. (1992). Treatment of depression in special populations. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 53(9, Suppl), 45‒53.
Robinson, R. G. (2003). Poststroke depression: Prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and disease progression. Biological Psychiatry, 54(3), 376‒387. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00423-2
Robinson, R. G., & Jorge, R. E. (2015). Post-stroke depression: a review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(3), 221-231. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15030363
Robinson, R. G., Schultz, S. K., Castillo, C., Kopel, T., Kosier, J. T., Newman, R. M., . . . & Starkstein, S. E. (2000). Nortriptyline versus fluoxetine in the treatment of depression and in short-term recovery after stroke: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(3), 351–359. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.3.351
Robinson-Smith, G., Johnston, M. V., & Allen, J. (2000). Self-care self-efficacy, quality of life, and depression after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81(4), 460‒464. doi:10.1053/mr.2000.3863
Roger, P. R., & Johnson-Greene, D. (2009). Comparison of assessment measures for post-stroke depression. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23(5), 780‒793. doi:10.1080/13854040802691135
Ruchinskas, R. (2002). Rehabilitation therapists' recognition of cognitive and mood disorders in geriatric patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83(5), 609–612. doi:10.1053/apmr.2002.32496
Rybarczyk, B., Winemiller, D. R., Lazarus, L. W., Haut, A., & Hartman, C. (1996). Validation of a depression screening measure for stroke inpatients. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4(2), 131‒139. doi:10.1097/00019442-199621420-00005
Salter, K., Bhogal, S. K., Foley, N., Jutai, J., & Teasell, R. (2007). The assessment of poststroke depression. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 14(3), 1‒24. doi:10.1310/tsr1403-1
Salter, K., McClure, J., Mahon, H., Foley, N., & Teasell, R. (2012). Adherence to Canadian best practice recommendations for stroke care: Assessment and management of poststroke depression in an Ontario rehabilitation facility. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 19(2), 132–140. doi:10.1310/tsr1902-132
Salter, K. L., Foley, N. C., Zhu, L., Jutai, J. W., & Teasell, R. W. (2013). Prevention of poststroke depression: Does prophylactic pharmacotherapy work? Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 22(8), 1243-1251. doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2012.03.013
Särkämö, T., Tervaniemi, M., Laitinen, S., Forsblom, A., Soinila, S., Mikkonen, M., ... & Peretz, I. (2008). Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke. Brain, 131(3), 866-876. doi: 10.1093/brain/awn013
Schmidt, R. L., & Factor, R. E. (2013). Understanding sources of bias in diagnostic accuracy studies. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 137(4), 558–565. doi:10.5858/arpa.2012-0198-RA
Schubert, D. S., Taylor, C., Lee, S., Mentari, A., & Tamaklo, W. (1992). Detection of depression in the stroke patient. Psychosomatics, 33(3), 290‒294. doi:10.1016/S0033-3182(92)71967-7
Schulz, R., Beach, S. R., Ives, D. G., Martire, L. M., Ariyo, A. A., & Kop, W. J. (2000). Association between depression and mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular health study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160(12), 1761‒1768. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.12.1761
Schwartz, J. A., Speed, N. M., Brunberg, J. A., Brewer, T. L., Brown, M., & Greden, J. F. (1993). Depression in stroke rehabilitation. Biological Psychiatry, 33(10), 694‒699. doi:10.1016/0006-3223(93)90118-W
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2010). Management of patients with stroke: Rehabilitation, prevention and management of complications, and discharge planning: A national clinical guideline. Edinburgh, Scotland.
Seymour, A. M. (2015). Depression screening for patients with stroke in an acute care setting (Master thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada). Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=
Shah, S., Vanclay, F., & Cooper, B. (1989). Improving the sensitivity of the Barthel Index for stroke rehabilitation. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 42(8), 703–709. doi:10.1016/0895-4356(89)90065-6
Shear, M. K., Greeno, C., Kang, J., Ludewig, D., Frank, E., Swartz, H. A., & Hanekamp, M. (2000). Diagnosis of nonpsychotic patients in community clinics. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(4), 581‒587. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.4.581
Sheikh, J. I., & Yesavage, J. A. (1986). Geriatric depression scale (GDS): Recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clinical Gerontologist: The Journal of Aging and Mental Health, 5(1-2), 165–173. doi:10.1300/J018v05n01_09
Shen, X., Liu, M., Cheng, Y., Jia, C., Pan, X., Gou, Q., . . . & Zhang, L. (2017). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of post-stroke depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Journal of Affective Disorders, 211, 65-74. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.058
Sinyor, D., Amato, P., Kaloupek, D. G., Becker, R., Goldenberg, M., & Coopersmith, H. (1986). Post-stroke depression: Relationships to functional impairment, coping strategies, and rehabilitation outcome. Stroke, 17(6), 1102‒1107. doi:10.1161/01.STR.17.6.1102
Sivrioglu, E. Y., Sivrioglu, K., Ertan, T., Ertan, F. S., Cankurtaran, E., Aki, O., . . . & Kirli, S. (2009). Reliability and validity of the geriatric depression scale in detection of poststroke minor depression. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 31(8), 999-1006. doi:10.1080/13803390902776878
Snaith, R. P., Ahmed, S. N., Mehta, S., & Hamilton, M. (1971). Assessment of the severity of primary depressive illness: Wakefield self-assessment depression inventory. Psychological Medicine, 1(2), 143‒149. doi:10.1017/S0033291700000064
Søndergaard, M. P., Jarden, J. O., Martiny, K., Andersen, G., & Bech, P. (2006). Dose response to adjunctive light therapy in citalopram-treated patients with post-stroke depression. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75(4), 244‒248. doi:10.1159/000092895
Spalletta, G., & Robinson, R. G. (2010). How should depression be diagnosed in patients with stroke? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121(6), 401–403. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2010.01569.x
Spalletta, G., Bossu, P., Ciaramella, A., Bria, P., Caltagirone, C., & Robinson, R. G. (2006). The etiology of poststroke depression: A review of the literature and a new hypothesis involving inflammatory cytokines. Molecular Psychiatry, 11(11), 984‒991. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001879
Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B. W., & Patient Health Questionnaire Primary Care Study Group. (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(18), 1737‒1744. doi:10.1001/jama.282.18.1737
Spratt, M., Carpenter, J., Sterne, J. A., Carlin, J. B., Heron, J., Henderson, J., & Tilling, K. (2010). Strategies for multiple imputation in longitudinal studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 172(4), 478‒487. doi:10.1093/aje/kwq137
Stein, P. N., Sliwinski, M. J., Gordon, W. A., & Hibbard, M. R. (1996). Discriminative properties of somatic and nonsomatic symptoms for post stroke depression. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10(2), 141‒148. doi:10.1080/13854049608406674
Steiner, J. L., Tebes, J. K., Sledge, W. H., & Walker, M. L. (1995). A comparison of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III—R and clinical diagnoses. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183(6), 365‒369. doi:10.1097/00005053-199506000-00003
Steyerberg, E. W., Vickers, A. J., Cook, N. R., Gerds, T., Gonen, M., Obuchowski, N., . . . & Kattan, M. W. (2010). Assessing the performance of prediction models: A framework for some traditional and novel measures. Epidemiology, 21(1), 128‒138. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181c30fb2
Stroke Mood and Cognition Best Practices Writing Group. (2013). Mood and cognition in patients following stroke. In M. P. Lindsay, G. Gubitz, M. Bayley, & S. Phillips (Eds.), Canadian best practice recommendations for stroke care (4th ed.). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Stroke Network. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ba28/b9ed17db2e0c2c9c2a779e5517b249204f79.pdf
Tateno, A., Kimura, M., & Robinson, R. G. (2002). Phenomenological characteristics of poststroke depression: Early-versus late-onset. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10(5), 575-582. doi:10.1097/00019442-200209000-00011
Tham, W. Y., Kwan, Y., & Ang, A. (2012). Performance of the patient health questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) as a screening tool for depression in stroke patients. Biological Psychiatry, 71(8), 141S. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.02.013
The EuroQol Group (1990). EuroQol - a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy, 16(3), 199–208. doi:10.1016/0168-8510(90)90421-9
Tsouna-Hadjis, E., Vemmos, K. N., Zakopoulos, N., & Stamatelopoulos, S. (2000). First-stroke recovery process: The role of family social support. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81(7), 881‒887. doi:10.1053/apmr.2000.4435
Turnbull, O. H., Evans, C. E., & Owen, V. (2005). Negative emotions and anosognosia. Cortex, 41(1), 67‒75. doi:10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70179-5
Turner, A., Hambridge, J., White, J., Carter, G., Clover, K., Nelson, L., & Hackett, M. (2012). Depression screening in stroke: A comparison of alternative measures with the structured diagnostic interview for the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. (major depressive episode) as criterion standard. Stroke, 43(4), 1000–1005. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.643296
Turner-Stokes, L., Kalmus, M., Hirani, D., & Clegg, F. (2005). The depression intensity scale circles (DISCs): A first evaluation of a simple assessment tool for depression in the context of brain injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 76(9), 1273–1278. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.050096
Tyson, S. F., Burton, L., & McGovern, A. (2015). The impact of a toolkit on use of standardised measurement tools in stroke rehabilitation. Clinical Rehabilitation, 29(9), 926–934. doi:10.1177/0269215514562590
van de Weg, F. B., Kuik, D. J., & Lankhorst, G. J. (1999). Post-stroke depression and functional outcome: A cohort study investigating the influence of depression on functional recovery from stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 13(3), 268–272. doi:10.1191/026921599672495022
van Dijk, M. J., de Man-van Ginkel, J. M., Hafsteinsdóttir, T. B., & Schuurmans, M. J. (2016). Identifying depression post-stroke in patients with aphasia: A systematic review of the reliability, validity and feasibility of available instruments. Clinical Rehabilitation, 30(8), 795–810. doi:10.1177/0269215515599665
Wade, D. T., Skilbeck, C. E., & Hewer, R. L. (1983). Predicting Barthel ADL score at 6 months after an acute stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 64(1), 24–28.
Walker, S., Walker, J., Richardson, G., Palmer, S., Wu, Q., Gilbody, S., . . . & Sculpher, M. (2014). Cost-effectiveness of combining systematic identification and treatment of co-morbid major depression for people with chronic diseases: The example of cancer. Psychological Medicine, 44(7), 1451–1460. doi:10.1017/S0033291713002079
Ware, J. E., & Gandek, B. (1998). Overview of the SF-36 health survey and the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) project. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51(11), 903‒912. doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(98)00081-X
Ware, J. E., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30(6), 473‒483. doi:10.1097/00005650-199206000-00002
Watkins, C., Daniels, L., Jack, C., Dickinson, H., & van den Broek, M. (2001). Accuracy of a single question in screening for depression in a cohort of patients after stroke: Comparative study. British Medical Journal, 323(7322), 1159. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7322.1159
Watkins, C. L., Lightbody, C. E., Sutton, C. J., Holcroft, L., Jack, C. I., Dickinson, H. A., . . . & Leathley, M. J. (2007). Evaluation of a single-item screening tool for depression after stroke: A cohort study. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21(9), 846–852. doi:10.1177/0269215507079846
Wei, N., Yong, W., Li, X., Zhou, Y., Deng, M., Zhu, H., & Jin, H. (2015). Post-stroke depression and lesion location: A systematic review. Journal of Neurology, 262(1), 81–90. doi:10.1007/s00415-014-7534-1
White, J. H., Towers, S. E., Turner, A., & Hambridge, J. (2013). Electronic screening and decision support for poststroke depression: An exploration of doctors' and patients' perceptions of acceptability. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 94(4), 788–790. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2012.09.009
Whiting, P., Rutjes, A. W. S., Dinnes, J., Reitsma, J. B., Bossuyt, P. M. M., & Kleijnen, J. (2004). Development and validation of methods for assessing the quality of diagnostic accuracy studies. Health Technology Assessment, 8(25), 1‒234. doi:10.3310/hta8250
Whyte, E. M., & Mulsant, B. H. (2002). Post stroke depression: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and biological treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 52(3), 253‒264. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01424-5
Williams, L. S., Brizendine, E. J., Plue, L., Bakas, T., Tu, W., Hendrie, H., & Kroenke, K. (2005). Performance of the PHQ-9 as a screening tool for depression after stroke. Stroke, 36(3), 635–638. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000155688.18207.33
Williams, L. S., Ghose, S. S., & Swindle, R. W. (2004). Depression and other mental health diagnoses increase mortality risk after ischemic stroke. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(6), 1090‒1095. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.161.6.1090
Winstein, C. J., Stein, J., Arena, R., Bates, B., Cherney, L. R., Cramer, S. C., ... & Lang, C. E.
(2016). Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 47(6).
Word Health Organization. (2002). The world health report 2002: reducing risks, promoting healthy life. World Health Organization.
Wu, C. S., Wang, S. C., Cheng, Y. C., Gau, S. S. (2011). Association of cerebrovascular events with antidepressant use: A case-crossover study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(5), 511-521. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10071064
Xu, X. M., Zou, D. Z., Shen, L. Y., Liu, Y., Zhou, X. Y., Pu, J. C., . . . & Wei, Y. D. (2016).
Efficacy and feasibility of antidepressant treatment in patients with post-stroke depression. Medicine, 95(45). doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000005349
Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V. O. (1982). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 37‒49. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4
Yi, Z. M., Liu, F., & Zhai, S. D. (2010). Fluoxetine for the prophylaxis of poststroke depression in patients with stroke: A meta‐analysis. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 64(9), 1310-1317. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2010.02437.x
Zawadzka, E., & Domańska, Ł. (2014). Assessment of select dimensions of patients' emotional functioning at different time periods after stroke. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 21(2), 87–93. doi:10.1080/09084282.2012.747959
Zhang, Z. J., Chen, H. Y., Yip, K. C., Ng, R., & Wong, V. T. (2010). The effectiveness and safety of acupuncture therapy in depressive disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 124(1-2), 9-21. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.07.005
Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67(6), 361‒370. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x
Zung, W. W. K. (1965). A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12(1), 63‒70. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1965.01720310065008
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top