Login | Register

Comprehensive Study of 1-bit Delta-Sigma Modulation in Digitized Radio over Fiber Fronthaul Systems


Comprehensive Study of 1-bit Delta-Sigma Modulation in Digitized Radio over Fiber Fronthaul Systems

Xie, Yuxuan ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9110-9874 (2021) Comprehensive Study of 1-bit Delta-Sigma Modulation in Digitized Radio over Fiber Fronthaul Systems. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Xie_MA_F2021.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Xie_MA_F2021.pdf - Accepted Version


Mobile access network includes backhaul and fronthaul transmission system. To support the requirements of high capacity, low cost and low power consumption in fronthaul transmission systems, radio over fiber (RoF) technology has become the most popular solution for fronthaul transmission. Current fronthaul transmission technology is based on digitized CPRI RoF transmission (CPRI- common protocol radio interface). However, the conventional CPRI RoF leads to fronthaul systems with high complexity, and high-power consumption. To simplify, 1-bit delta-sigma modulation based digital RoF fronthaul system was proposed, in which the complexity and power consumption of the antenna tower units by moving complicated signal processing to central baseband units are reduced. When 1-bit delta-sigma modulation is used, an electrical bandpass filter is only required at the antenna tower to convert a digital signal to an analog RF signal for a downlink fronthaul.
In this thesis, comprehensive studies and comparison of three 1-bit delta-sigma modulations (DSM) in fronthaul optical transmission are given, which are two bandpass and one envelope delta-sigma modulation. The first bandpass 1-bit DSM considered (type-I) is based on a mixed-signal and a bandpass ΔΣ modulator, and the second bandpass 1-bit DSM considered (type-II) is based on all-digital signal and two low-pass ΔΣ modulators.
First, the ΔΣ modulator, i.e. the core unit of the DSM, is designed for a long-term evolution (LTE) signal of 200 MHz. In the ΔΣ modulator, the loop filter plays a significant role, and thus it is first optimized. Based on theoretical analysis, simulations and experiments, the Chebyshev-based loop filter is selected because it has a narrower transition band and wider stopband. Moreover, it is found that the order of the loop filter should be matched with input signal bandwidth.
Among the three DSMs, it is found by simulations and experiments that bandpass DSM type Ⅰ is the simplest system, and it also leads to the best optical transmission. However, the bandpass DSM type Ⅰ is the highest in the design difficulty because it uses a bandpass ΔΣ modulator. The bandpass DSM type Ⅱ is the easiest system to be implemented by hardware for its all-digital structure. However, due to a wider signal spectrum, the type-II is more sensitive to fiber dispersion, and the wider signal spectrum is induced by digital carrier.
It is found that harmonic noise can be added to the signal band in the envelope DSM when the signal is not narrow, such as 200 MHz in this thesis. Further, it is shown that this noise becomes the dominating factor in transmission performance. Therefore, the envelope DSM leads to the worst transmission performance among the three DSMs.
DSM generated NRZ is also compared to conventional NRZ. It is found that the DSM generated NRZ leads to worse transmission performance than conventional NRZ, i.e., more sensitive to fiber dispersion, which is due to the fact that the DSM generated NRZ has a larger optical spectrum. To reduce the effect of fiber dispersion, it is demonstrated that the digital up-sampling after DSM can be used to reduce the optical bit rate, and thus transmission is much less sensitive to fiber dispersion.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Electrical and Computer Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Xie, Yuxuan
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Electrical and Computer Engineering
Date:20 July 2021
Thesis Supervisor(s):Zhang, Xiupu
Keywords:delta-sigma modulation, 5G, fronthaul, radio over fiber, noise shaping
ID Code:988714
Deposited By: Yuxuan Xie
Deposited On:29 Nov 2021 16:28
Last Modified:29 Nov 2021 16:28


[1] J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi., Communication systems engineering, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall, 2002, ch. 1, pp 1-23.
[2] L. G. Alberto and I. Widjaja, "Channelization in telephone cellular networks," in communication networks: fundamental concepts and key architectures, New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2001, ch. 6, sec. 6.5.4, pp 382-389.
[3] Z. Eustathia and T. Antonakopoulos. "CSMA/CA performance under high traffic conditions: throughput and delay analysis," comput. Commun., vol 25, no. 3 pp: 313-321, Aug. 2000.
[4] R. Consulta, "4G Mobile Networks – Technology beyond 2.5G and 3G," Wireless Commun., vol 3, pp 230-236, 2011.
[5] H. Kim, "Orthogonal Frequency‐Division Multiplexing," in Wireless Communications Systems Design, Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2015, ch7., pp.209-238.
[6] M. Raja. "Literature survey for transceiver design in MIMO and OFDM systems." J. of Communications, vol 13, no. 2, pp 45-59, July 2018.
[7] I. Jawad. "4G Features." Bechtel Telecommun. Tech. J., vol. 1, no. 1, pp 11-14, 2002.
[8] Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; 5G; Release description; Release 14, ETSI TR 121 914 V14.0.0, 2018.
[9] Wikipedia. (2021). Cellular network [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_network
[10] “Cisco Annual Internet Report (2018–2023) White Paper,” Cisco Systems Inc., San Jose, CA, USA, Rep. C11-741490-01, 2020.
[11] F. Connect. (2012, Jun. 14). The radio over fiber system concept [Online]. Available: https://www.fiberoptics4sale.com/blogs/archive-posts/95043078-what-is-radio-over-fiber
[12] X. Liu et al., "Efficient Mobile Fronthaul via DSP-Based Channel Aggregation," J. of Lightwave Technol., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1556-1564, 2016.
[13] S. Hori et al., "A digital radio-over-fiber downlink system based on envelope delta-sigma modulation for multi-band/mode operation," in 2016 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), San Francisco, CA, 2016, pp. 1-4.
[14] S. R. Abdollahi et al., "Digital Radio over Fibre for Future Broadband Wireless Access Network Solution," in 2010 6th Int. Conf. on Wireless and Mobile Commun., Valencia, 2010, pp. 504-508.
[15] J. Cheng et al., "Comparison of Coherent and IMDD Transceivers for Intra Datacenter Optical Interconnects," in 2019 Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. and Exhibition (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2019, pp. 1-3.
[16] A. Khilo et al., "Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter," Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 4, pp 4454-4469, 2012
[17] S. Pavan et al., Understanding delta-sigma data converters, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2017.
[18] S. Haykin, "Baseband pulse transmission" in communication systems, 4th ed. New York City, NY, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ch. 4, pp. 247-296.
[19] L. G. Alberto, "Random process" and "Analysis and processing of random signal" in Probability, statistics, and random processes for electrical engineering, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2017, ch. 9-10, pp. 487-633.
[20] J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, "Deterministic and Random signal analysis" in Digital communications, 5th ed. New York City, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2008, ch. 2, pp. 17-82.
[21] Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, IEEE Std 802.11™-2016, 2016.
[22] R. A. Shafik et. al, "On the Extended Relationships Among EVM, BER and SNR as Performance Metrics," in 2006 International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2006, pp. 408-411
[23] A. F. Molisch, "Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)," in Wireless Communications, 2nd ed. Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2011, ch. 19, pp.417-443.
[24] S. Kumar and M. J. Deen, Fiber optical communications fundamentals and applications, 1st ed. Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2014.
[25] Corning inc., "SMF-28® ultra optical fiber," Corning SMF-28 datasheet, 2014.
[26] F. Edalat, "Effect of Power Amplifier Nonlinearity on System Performance Metric, Bit-Error-Rate (BER)," M.S. thesis, Department Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2003.
[27] Mini-Circuits company, "Super ultra wideband Amplifier," ZVA-213-S+ datasheet, December, 2008.
[28] A. V. Oppenheim, Discrete-time signal processing, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson Higher Education Inc., 2010.
[29] L. Tan and J. Jiang, “Signal Sampling and Quantization,” in Digital Signal Processing: fundamentals and applications, San Diego, CA, USA: Elsevier, 2019, ch. 2, pp. 13–58.
[30] H. Inose and Y. Yasuda, "A Telemetering System by Code Modulation - Δ- Σ Modulation," in IRE Transactions on Space Electronics and Telemetry, vol. SET-8, no. 3, pp. 204-209, Sept. 1962.
[31] B. Li, " Design of multi-bit sigma delta modulators for digital wireless communications," M.S. thesis, Department of Microelectronics & Information Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum, Kista, Sweden, 2003.
[32] A. Frappe et al., “An All-Digital RF Signal Generator Using High-Speed Delta Sigma Modulators,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 2722–2732, Oct. 2009.
[33] A. Dupuy and Y. E. Wang, “High efficiency power transmitter based on envelope delta-sigma modulation (EDSM),” in IEEE 60th Vehicular Technology Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2004, pp. 2092-2095.
[34] S. Hori, K. Kunihiro, K. Takahashi, and M. Fukaishi, “A 0.7-3GHz envelope ΔΣ modulator using phase modulated carrier clock for multi-mode/band switching amplifiers,” in 2011 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Baltimore, MD, USA, Jun. 2011, pp. 1–4.
[35] M. Tanio et al., "An FPGA-based all-digital transmitter with 28-GHz time-interleaved delta-sigma modulation," in 2016 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), San Francisco, CA, USA, 2016, pp. 1-4.
[36] M. Tanio et al., "An FPGA-based 1-bit Digital Transmitter with 800-MHz Bandwidth for 5G Millimeter-wave Active Antenna Systems," in 2018 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2018, pp. 499-502.
[37] A. Lorences-Riesgo et al., "Real-Time FPGA-Based Delta-Sigma-Modulation Transmission for 60 GHz Radio-Over-Fiber Fronthaul," in 2018 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Rome, Italy, 2018, pp. 1-3.
[38] J. Wang et al., "Delta-Sigma Modulation for Next Generation Fronthaul Interface," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 2838-2850, June, 2019.
[39] S. Hori et al., "A 1-Bit Digital Transmitter System using a 20-Gbps Quadruple-Cascode Class-D Digital Power Amplifier with 45nm SOI CMOS," in 2019 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), Boston, MA, USA, 2019, pp. 734-737.
[40] T. Soma et al., "A 200 MHz Bandwidth GaAs Switch-Mode Supply Modulator," in 2018 IEEE BiCMOS and Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Technology Symposium (BCICTS), San Diego, CA, USA, 2018, pp. 148-151.
[41] Y. Seo et al., "3‐Level Envelope Delta‐Sigma Modulation RF Signal Generator for High‐Efficiency Transmitters," ETRI Journal, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 924-930, December, 2014.
[42] J. Engelen and R. Plassche, Bandpass sigma delta modulators: stability analysis, performance and design aspects. Boston, MA, USA: Springer, 1999.
[43] M. Neitola, "Lee's Rule Extended," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 382-386, April 2017.
[44] N. Kumar and K. Rawat, "Delta Sigma Modulation Based Digital Transmitter for Single and Dual Band Transmission," in 2018 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and RF Conference (IMaRC), Kolkata, India, 2018, pp. 1-4.
[45] T. Maehata et al., "Concurrent dual-band 1-bit digital transmitter using band-pass delta-sigma modulator," in 2013 European Microwave Integrated Circuit Conference, Nuremberg, Germany, 2013, pp. 552-555.
[46] LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception, 3GPP TS 36.104 version 8.3.0 Release 8, 2008.
[47] Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), LTE 5G release description Release 14, 3GPP TR 21.914 version 14.0.0 Release 14, 2018.
[48] MITEQ, "6 GHz SCM fiber optical link," SCMT-100M 6G-28-20-M14 and SCMR-100M 6G-10-20-10 datasheet, March, 2003.
[49] IEEE draft standard for information technology - telecommunications and information exchange between systems - local and metropolitan area networks - specific requirements - part 11: wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications, IEEE Std 802.11™-2016, 2016.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top