Login | Register

Braiding Knowledge through breath, language, and movement: culturally rooted, trauma-informed Yoga for First Nations Women


Braiding Knowledge through breath, language, and movement: culturally rooted, trauma-informed Yoga for First Nations Women

Barudin, Jessica W.G. (2023) Braiding Knowledge through breath, language, and movement: culturally rooted, trauma-informed Yoga for First Nations Women. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of BARUDIN_PhD_F2023.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
BARUDIN_PhD_F2023.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


This doctoral research weaves in several distinct cultural and philosophical knowledge systems, including Kwakwa̱ka̱ʼwakw, Indigenous knowledge of India through the practice of Yoga, and Western science of trauma theory and mindfulness. The primary research aim is to describe the process and impact of the First Nations Yoga Initiative (FNWYI), a trauma-informed, community program that combined virtual and land-based learning in an 80-hour curriculum piloted to a Cohort of twenty Kwakwa̱ka̱ʼwakw and other First Nations women who participated in the program. A range of qualitative methods were used to gain in-depth insights into the experiences of wellness, healing, and language learning experiences of participants through an Indigenous Research Paradigm, bridging intercultural wisdom and spirit-based inquiry that centers Kwakwa̱ka̱ʼwakw ways of knowing alongside the Yogic tradition, and Trauma-Informed Yoga (TIY) principles. The yoga program was co-created, implemented, and evaluated alongside a First Nations advisory circle of learners, fluent Kwak̓wala speakers and knowledge keepers. A culturally-responsive framework offers ways of sharing parallel Indigenous knowledge systems and advances awareness into how First Nations women prioritize standing in their own roots and values of respect and reciprocity when honoring the roots of Yoga. The research project builds upon existing findings from the fields of culturally rooted and TIY training and education, as well as offering an Indigenized approach to community wellness, trauma healing and language revitalization. The FNWYI introduced embodied language-learning through the exploration of Kwak̓wala values, worldviews, ancestral practices, chants and songs to promote an intentional learning community. The research project emphasizes the identity-building process and decolonizing practices through the embodiment of ancestral language, ceremonial practices, and trauma-informed yoga. This study addresses a gap in TIY research and practice by centering the priorities and stories of First Nations women as they cope with varying degrees of trauma, grief and stress - magnified by the Covid-19 pandemic. ‘Braiding Knowledge through Breath, Language, and Movement’ provides a strategic framework and grassroots model for creating trauma-informed, culturally-rooted yoga programs, engrained with embodied language learning, ancestral healing practices, and virtual and land-based learning throughout.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Applied Human Sciences
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Barudin, Jessica W.G.
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Individualized Program
Date:3 July 2023
Thesis Supervisor(s):Fast, Elizabeth and Lewis, Jason
Keywords:First Nations women; Kwakwa̱ka̱ʼwakw, community wellness; Indigenous approaches, Trauma; Trauma-Informed Yoga; decolonial methodologies, spirit-based inquiry, embodiment; embodied learning; language revitalization, culturally-responsive framework
ID Code:992805
Deposited By: Jessica Willow Grace Barudin
Deposited On:16 Nov 2023 17:50
Last Modified:16 Nov 2023 17:50
Related URLs:


Antony, M. G. (2014). “It’s Not Religious, But It’s Spiritual:” Appropriation and the Universal Spirituality of Yoga. Journal of Communication & Religion, 37(4).
Arista, N. (Director). (n.d.). Kilohana: Seeking into the Indigenous Future: The Mana of Mo’olelo [Film]. Indigenous Futures Cluster. https://abtec.tv/noelaniarista/
Bagga, S. K. (2022). Self-objectification and trauma responses to Yoga and the racialized body. Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, 27(2–3), 345–363. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41282-022-00279-z
Baldy, C. R. (2015). Coyote is not a metaphor: On decolonizing, (re)claiming and (re)naming “Coyote.” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, 4(1), Article 1. https://jps.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/des/article/view/22155
Barkataki, S. (2020). Embrace yoga’s roots: Courageous ways to deepen your yoga practice. Ignite Yoga and Wellness Institute.
Barudin, J. W. G. (2021). From Breath to Beadwork: Lessons Learned From a Trauma- Informed Yoga Series With Indigenous Adolescent Girls Under Youth Protection. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.32799/ijih.v16i1.33220
Barudin, J., & Zafran, H. (2020). Introduction to trauma-informed rehabilitation with Indigenous communities. Physiotherapy Practice, 9, 18–21.
Belcourt, B.-R. (2018). Meditations on reserve life, biosociality, and the taste of non-sovereignty. Settler Colonial Studies, 8(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/2201473X.2017.1279830
Blu Wakpa, T. (2018). Decolonizing Yoga? And (Un)settling Social Justice. Race and Yoga, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.5070/R331042080
Brave Heart, M. Y. H. (1998). The return to the sacred path: Healing the historical trauma and historical unresolved grief response among the lakota through a psychoeducational group intervention. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 68(3), 287–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/00377319809517532
Brave Heart, M. Y. H., Chase, J., Elkins, J., & Altschul, D. B. (2011). Historical Trauma Among Indigenous Peoples of the Americas: Concepts, Research, and Clinical Considerations. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43(4), 282–290. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2011.628913
Brown, H., Isaac, T., Timler, K., Newman, E. V., Cranmer, A., & Cranmer, D. (2021). A m x same’ su sa ‘Nawalakw (the supernatural spirit wraps around us): Impacts of Kwakw a k a ’wakw regalia making on identity, wellness and belonging in ‘Y a lis, British Columbia. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 17(4), 491–503. https://doi.org/10.1177/11771801211058401
Bryant-Davis, T. (2007). Healing Requires Recognition: The Case for Race-Based Traumatic Stress. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 135–143. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000006295152
Carter, R. T. (2007). Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury: Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 13–105. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000006292033
Chan, J. (2019, December 9). Laughter Yoga as a School-based Wellness Program: Supporting the Well-Being of Nishnawbe Youth: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Laughter-Yoga-as-a-School-based-Wellness-Program%3A-Chan/18e03607ab580aa922b9c3a9abb269bb9377ce11
Child, S. (2016). Awi’nakola: We are One with the Land and Sea. Igniting the Fire Within; Youth Leadership Camp [University of Victoria].
Cole, P. (2002). Aboriginalizing methodology: Considering the canoe. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(4), 447–459. https://doi.org/10.1080/09518390210145516
Conboy, L. A., Wilson, A., & Braun, T. (2010). Moving beyond health to flourishing: The effects of yoga teacher training. TheScientificWorldJournal, 10, 788–795. https://doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2010.87
Crews, D. A., Stolz-Newton, M., & Grant, N. S. (2016). The use of yoga to build self-compassion as a healing method for survivors of sexual violence. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 35(3), 139–156. https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2015.1067583
DeLuca, S. M., Kelman, A. R., & Waelde, L. C. (2018). A Systematic Review of Ethnoracial Representation and Cultural Adaptation of Mindfulness- and Meditation-Based Interventions. Psychological Studies, 63(2), 117–129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-018-0452-z
Deshpande, R. (2019, May 1). What’s the Difference Between Cultural Appropriation and Cultural Appreciation? Yoga Journal. https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/yoga-cultural-appropriation-appreciation/
Desikachar, T. K. V. (1999). The heart of yoga: Developing a personal practice (Rev. ed). Inner Traditions International.
Dicks, M. A. (Tamara). (2014). Exploring Drumming/Song and its Relationship to Healing in the Lives of Indigenous Women Living in the City of Winnipeg; A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Arts in Indigenous Governance degree, Department of Indigenous Studies, The University of Winnipeg [Master of Arts in Indigenous Governance, University of Winnipeg]. https://doi.org/10.36939/ir.202011101132
Dreger, L. C., Mackenzie, C., & McLeod, B. (2015). Feasibility of a mindfulness-based intervention for aboriginal adults with type 2 diabetes. Mindfulness, 6(2), 264–280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-013-0257-z
Driskill, Q.-L. (2010). DOUBLEWEAVING TWO-SPIRIT CRITIQUES. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 16(1–2), 69–92. https://doi.org/10.1215/10642684-2009-013
Duran, E., Duran, B., Heart, M. Y. H. B., & Horse-Davis, S. Y. (1998). Healing the American Indian Soul Wound. In Y. Danieli (Ed.), International Handbook of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma (pp. 341–354). Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-5567-1_22
Eknath, E. (Ed.). (2007). The Bhagavad Gita (2nd ed). Nilgiri Press.
Elm, J. H. L., Lewis, J. P., Walters, K. L., & Self, J. M. (2016). “I’m in this world for a reason”: Resilience and recovery among American Indian and Alaska Native two-spirit women. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 20(3–4), 352–371. https://doi.org/10.1080/10894160.2016.1152813
Emerson, D. (2015). Trauma-Sensitive Yoga in Therapy: Bringing the Body into Treatment. W. W. Norton & Company.
Emerson, D., & Hopper, E. (2011). Overcoming trauma through yoga: Reclaiming your body. North Atlantic Books.
Evans-Campbell, T. (2008). Historical Trauma in American Indian/Native Alaska Communities: A Multilevel Framework for Exploring Impacts on Individuals, Families, and Communities. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(3), 316–338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260507312290
Fast, E., & Collin-Vézina, D. (2020). Historical Trauma, Race-based Trauma and Resilience of Indigenous Peoples: A Literature Review. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 5(1), 126–136. https://doi.org/10.7202/1069069ar
Galla, C. K. (2016). Indigenous language revitalization, promotion, and education: Function of digital technology. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(7), 1137–1151. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2016.1166137
Gone, J. P. (2009). A community-based treatment for Native American historical trauma: Prospects for evidence-based practice. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(4), 751–762. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015390
Gone, J. P. (2013). Redressing First Nations historical trauma: Theorizing mechanisms for indigenous culture as mental health treatment. Transcultural Psychiatry, 50(5), 683–706. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363461513487669
Greenwood, M., de Leeuw, S., & Lindsay, N. M. (2018). Determinants of Indigenous Peoples’ Health, Second Edition. Canadian Scholar’s Press. https://canadianscholars.ca/book/determinants-of-indigenous-peoples-health/
Heart, M. Y. H. B. (1999). Gender Differences in the Historical Trauma Response Among the Lakota. Journal of Health & Social Policy, 10(4), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1300/J045v10n04_01
Herman, J. L. (1992). Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(3), 377–391. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490050305
Horn-Miller, K. (2016). Distortion and Healing: Finding Balance and a “Good Mind” Through the Rearticulation of Sky Woman’s Journey. In Living on the Land—Indigenous Women’s Understanding of Place.
Hunt, S., & Holmes, C. (2015). Everyday Decolonization: Living a Decolonizing Queer Politics. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 19(2), 154–172. https://doi.org/10.1080/10894160.2015.970975
Iacono, G. (2019). An Affirmative Mindfulness Approach for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Youth Mental Health. Clinical Social Work Journal, 47(2), 156–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10615-018-0656-7
Iwama, M., Marshall, M., Marshall, A., & Bartlett, C. (2021). Two-Eyed Seeing and the Language of Healing in Community-Based Research. Canadian Journal of Native Education, Vol. 32 No. 2 (2009). https://doi.org/10.14288/CJNE.V32I2.196493
Johnson, M. (2021). Skill in action: Radicalizing your yoga practice to create a just world (Revised and expanded). Shambhala.
Joseph, Dr. R. (Director). (2016, May 24). Healing a Nation Through Truth and Reconciliation | Chief Dr Robert Joseph | TEDxEastVan [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rJQgpuLq1LI
Joudry, S. (2016). PUKTEWEI: LEARNING FROM FIRE IN MI’KMA’KI (MI’KMAQ TERRITORY) [Dalhousie University]. https://dalspace.library.dal.ca/bitstream/handle/10222/72599/Joudry-Shalan-MES-SRES-August-2016.pdf?sequence=5
Justice, L., Brems, C., & Ehlers, K. (2018). Bridging Body and Mind: Considerations for Trauma-Informed Yoga. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 28(1), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.17761/2018-00017R2
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003a). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144–156. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003b). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144–156. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016
Kermoal, N. J., Altamirano-Jiménez, I., & Horn-Miller, K. (Eds.). (2016). Living on the land: Indigenous women’s understanding of place. AU Press.
Kirkness, V. J., & Barnhardt, R. (1991). FIRST NATIONS AND HIGHER EDUCATION: The Four R’s — Respect, Relevance, Reciprocity, Responsibility. Journal of American Indian Education, 30(3), 1–15. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24397980
Kosmas, P. (2021). The integration of embodied learning in a language learning classroom: Conclusions from a qualitative analysis. In S. Papadima-Sophocleous, E. Kakoulli Constantinou, & C. N. Giannikas (Eds.), Tertiary education language learning: A collection of research (1st ed., pp. 133–149). Research-publishing.net. https://doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2021.51.1258
Kovach, M. (2010a). Conversational method in Indigenous research (Vol. 1). First peoples Child & Family Review.
Kovach, M. (2010b). Indigenous methodologies: Characteristics, conversations, and contexts. University of Toronto Press.
Lavrencic, L. M., Donovan, T., Moffatt, L., Keiller, T., Allan, W., Delbaere, K., & Radford, K. (2021). Ngarraanga Giinganay ('thinking peacefully’): Co-design and pilot study of a culturally-grounded mindfulness-based stress reduction program with older First Nations Australians. Evaluation and Program Planning, 87, 101929. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2021.101929
Lazaridou, A., & Pentaris, P. (2016). Mindfulness and spirituality: Therapeutic perspectives. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 15(3), 235–244. https://doi.org/10.1080/14779757.2016.1180634
Le, T. N., & Gobert, J. M. (2015). Translating and Implementing a Mindfulness-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Intervention in a Native American Community. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(1), 12–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9809-z
Le, T. N., & Proulx, J. (2015). Feasibility of mindfulness-based intervention for incarcerated mixed-ethnic Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander youth. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 6(2), 181–189. https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000019
Le, T. N., & Shim, P. (2014). Mindfulness and the Aloha Response. Journal of Indigenous Social Development, 3(2), Article 2. https://journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/index.php/jisd/article/view/63056
Levine, P. A. (1997). Waking the tiger: Healing trauma: the innate capacity to transform overwhelming experiences. North Atlantic Books.
Luger, C., & Collins, T. (2022). The seven circles: Indigenous teachings for living well (First edition). HarperOne, an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers.
Mayer, S. S. (2019). Enhancing the Lives of Children in Out-Of-Home Care: An Exploration of Mind-Body Interventions as a Method of Trauma Recovery. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 12(4), 549–560. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40653-019-0250-3
McIvor, O. (n.d.). I am my subject: Blending Indigenous research methodology and autoethnography through intergrity-based and spirit-based research. Retrieved June 25, 2023, from www.academia.edu/10813840/I_am_my_subject_Blending_Indigenous_research_methodology_and_autoethnography_through_intergrity_based_and_spirit_based_research
Menakem, R. (2021). My Grandmother’s hands: Racialized trauma and the pathway to mending our hearts and bodies. Penguin Books.
Methot, S. (2019). Legacy: Trauma, story, and Indigenous healing. ECW Press.
Miller, J., & Berger, E. (2020). A review of school trauma-informed practice for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth. The Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 37(1), 39–46. https://doi.org/10.1017/edp.2020.2
Mitchell, S. L. (2018). Sacred instructions: Indigenous wisdom for living spirit-based change. North Atlantic Books.
Napoli, M. (2002). Holistic Health Care for Native Women: An Integrated Model. American Journal of Public Health, 92(10), 1573–1575. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.10.1573
Narayan, S. (2022). G̱ilakas’ la: To Accept You for Who You Are in This Present Moment [Doctoral Dissertation]. City University of Seattle.
Neukirch, N., Reid, S., & Shires, A. (2019a). Yoga for PTSD and the role of interoceptive awareness: A preliminary mixed-methods case series study. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 3(1), 7–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejtd.2018.10.003
Neukirch, N., Reid, S., & Shires, A. (2019b). Yoga for PTSD and the role of interoceptive awareness: A preliminary mixed-methods case series study. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 3(1), 7–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejtd.2018.10.003
Nguyen-Feng, V. N., Clark, C. J., & Butler, M. E. (2019). Yoga as an intervention for psychological symptoms following trauma: A systematic review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Services, 16(3), 513–523. https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000191
Nguyen-Feng, V. N., Hodgdon, H., Emerson, D., Silverberg, R., & Clark, C. J. (2020). Moderators of treatment efficacy in a randomized controlled trial of trauma-sensitive yoga as an adjunctive treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(8), 836–846. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000963
Nicolson, M. (2005). Moving forward while looking back: A Kwakwaka’wakw concept of time as expressed in language and culture. http://hdl.handle.net/1828/1887
Nicolson, M. (2013). Yaxa Uḱwine’, yaxa Gukw, dłuwida Awińagwis:“TheAwińagwis: “The Body, the House, and the Land”: The Conceptualization of Space in Kwakwa̱ka̱ʼwakw Language and Culture [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Victoria]. http://hdl.handle.net/1828/5135
Nicotera, N., & Connolly, M. M. (2020). The Influence of Trauma-Informed Yoga (TIY) on Emotion Regulation and Skilled Awareness in Sexual Assault Survivors. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 30(1), 19–31. https://doi.org/10.17761/2020-D-18-00031
Nolan, C. R. (2016). Bending without breaking: A narrative review of trauma-sensitive yoga for women with PTSD. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 24, 32–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2016.05.006
Nousheen, F., & González Madrigal, R. A. (2021). Embodied Justice in Yoga for People of Color Sangha. Race and Yoga, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.5070/R36153128
Ong, C. W., Lee, E. B., Krafft, J., Terry, C. L., Barrett, T. S., Levin, M. E., & Twohig, M. P. (2019). A randomized controlled trial of acceptance and commitment therapy for clinical perfectionism. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 22, 100444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocrd.2019.100444
Ong, I., Cashwell, C. S., & Downs, H. A. (2019). Trauma-Sensitive Yoga: A Collective Case Study of Women’s Trauma Recovery from Intimate Partner Violence. Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation, 10(1), 19–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/21501378.2018.1521698
Ortega-Williams, A., Beltrán, R., Schultz, K., Ru-Glo Henderson, Z., Colón, L., & Teyra, C. (2021). An Integrated Historical Trauma and Posttraumatic Growth Framework: A Cross-Cultural Exploration. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 22(2), 220–240. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2020.1869106
Parker, G., Raheem, O. F., & Wheeler, A. (2020). Restorative Yoga for Ethnic and Race-Based Stress and Trauma (Illustrated edition). Singing Dragon.
Patañjali, & Hartranft, C. (2019). The Yoga-Sūtra of Patañjali: A new translation with commentary. Shambhala.
Pelletier, C. A. (2020). A Grounded Theory Analysis of a Trauma-Sensitve Yoga Intervention for Paramedics within an Indigenous Cultural Responsiveness Framework [Thesis, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, University of Regina]. https://ourspace.uregina.ca/handle/10294/14344
Price, M., Spinazzola, J., Musicaro, R., Turner, J., Suvak, M., Emerson, D., & Van Der Kolk, B. (2017). Effectiveness of an Extended Yoga Treatment for Women with Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 23(4), 300–309. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2015.0266
Proulx, J., Croff, R., Oken, B., Aldwin, C. M., Fleming, C., Bergen-Cico, D., Le, T., & Noorani, M. (2018). Considerations for Research and Development of Culturally Relevant Mindfulness Interventions in American Minority Communities. Mindfulness, 9(2), 361–370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0785-z
Ranganathan, S. (2022). Yoga—The Original Philosophy: De-Colonize Your Yoga Therapy. https://philarchive.org/rec/RANFYO
Rangnekar, P. (2022, May 31). The Hatha Yoga Confusion. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CeOQgCdDdic/
Reeves, A., & Stewart, S. L. (2015). Exploring the Integration of Indigenous Healing and Western Psychotherapy for Sexual Trauma Survivors Who Use Mental Health Services at Anishnawbe Health Toronto. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 49(1), Article 1. https://cjc-rcc.ucalgary.ca/article/view/61008
Restoule, J.-P. (2019). Where Indigenous Knowledge Lives: Bringing Indigenous Perspectives to Online Learning Environments. In E. A. McKinley & L. T. Smith (Eds.), Handbook of Indigenous Education (pp. 1295–1317). Springer Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3899-0_62
Rhodes, A. M. (2015). Claiming peaceful embodiment through yoga in the aftermath of trauma. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 21(4), 247–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2015.09.004
Rosborough, P. C. (2012). Ḵ̓a̱ngex̱tola sewn-on-top: Kwak’wala revitalization and being indigenous [University of British Columbia]. https://doi.org/10.14288/1.0073018
Rosborough, T., Rorick, C. L., & Urbanczyk, S. (2017). Beautiful Words: Enriching and Indigenizing Kwak’wala Revitalization through Understandings of Linguistic Structure. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 73(4), 425–437. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.4059
Sande, E. van der. (n.d.). Yoga and the Roots of Cultural Appropriation. Trauma Sensitive Yoga – The Netherlands. Retrieved June 24, 2023, from https://www.traumasensitiveyoganederland.com/yoga-and-the-roots-of-cultural-appropriation/
Sara Florence Davidson author. (2018). Potlatch as pedagogy: Learning through ceremony / Sara Florence Davidson and Robert Davidson. Portage & Main Press. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/sfu-ebooks/detail.action?docID=5493224
Sasakamoose, J., Scerbe, A., Wenaus, I., & Scandrett, A. (2016). First Nation and Métis Youth Perspectives of Health: An Indigenous Qualitative Inquiry. Qualitative Inquiry, 22(8), 636–650. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800416629695
Satchidananda, & Patañjali. (1990). The yoga sutras of Patanjali. Integral Yoga Publications.
Skaare, J. (n.d.). A Systematic Review: Examination of Yoga-Based Interventions to Determine their Benefits and Effectiveness in Treating PTSD in Women.
Smoyer, A. B. (2016). Being on the Mat: A Process Evaluation of Trauma-Informed Yoga for Women with Substance Use Disorders. The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 43(4). https://doi.org/10.15453/0191-5096.4045
Sood, S. (2018). Cultivating a Yogic Theology of Collective Healing: A Yogini’s Journey Disrupting White Supremacy, Hindu Fundamentalism, and Casteism. Race and Yoga, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.5070/R331034279
Spinazzola, J., Rhodes, A. M., Emerson, D., Earle, E., & Monroe, K. (2011). Application of Yoga in Residential Treatment of Traumatized Youth. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 17(6), 431–444. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078390311418359
Sun, J., & Buys, N. (2016). Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach. American Journal of Health Promotion, 30(4), 259–263. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117116639573
TallBear, K. (2014). Standing With and Speaking as Faith: A Feminist-Indigenous Approach to Inquiry. Journal of Research Practice, 10(2), Article 2. http://jrp.icaap.org/index.php/jrp/article/view/405
Taylor, D. H. (Ed.). (2021). Me tomorrow: Indigenous views on the future. Douglas & McIntyre.
Taylor, J., McLean, L., Korner, A., Stratton, E., & Glozier, N. (2020). Mindfulness and yoga for psychological trauma: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 21(5), 536–573. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2020.1760167
Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 455–471. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490090305
Tessaro, D., & Restoule, J.-P. (2022). Indigenous pedagogies and online learning environments: A massive open online course case study. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 18(1), 182–191. https://doi.org/10.1177/11771801221089685
Togni, S. J. (2017). The Uti Kulintjaku Project: The Path to Clear Thinking. An Evaluation of an Innovative, Aboriginal‐Led Approach to Developing Bi‐Cultural Understanding of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), 268–279. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12243
Tuhiwai Smith, L. (2021). Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. Zed Books. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350225282
U’mista Cultural Society. (2015). Our Land | Our People | Living Tradition, The Kwakwaka’wakw Potlatch on the Northwest Coast. Our Land | Our People | Living Tradition, The Kwakwaka’wakw Potlatch on the Northwest Coast. https://umistapotlatch.ca/notre_terre-our_land-eng.php
University of Saskatchewan (Director). (2016, March 28). Indigenous Feminisms Power Panel. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-HnEvaVXoto
van Bockxmeer, J., McNamara, K., & Green, Dr. J. (2015). The social and emotional benefits of yoga for Aboriginal Australian children: A pilot case series study. Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin, 15(4).
Van der Kolk, B. (2014). The Body Keeps The Score. Penguin Books UK. https://www.besselvanderkolk.com/resources/the-body-keeps-the-score
Van Der Kolk, B. A., Stone, L., West, J., Rhodes, A., Emerson, D., Suvak, M., & Spinazzola, J. (2014). Yoga as an Adjunctive Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 75(06), e559–e565. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.13m08561
Waldron, E. M., Hong, S., Moskowitz, J. T., & Burnett-Zeigler, I. (2018). A Systematic Review of the Demographic Characteristics of Participants in US-Based Randomized Controlled Trials of Mindfulness-Based Interventions. Mindfulness, 9(6), 1671–1692. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0920-5
Walters, K. L., Johnson-Jennings, M., Stroud, S., Rasmus, S., Charles, B., John, S., Allen, J., Kaholokula, J. K., Look, M. A., De Silva, M., Lowe, J., Baldwin, J. A., Lawrence, G., Brooks, J., Noonan, C. W., Belcourt, A., Quintana, E., Semmens, E. O., & Boulafentis, J. (2020). Growing from Our Roots: Strategies for Developing Culturally Grounded Health Promotion Interventions in American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Communities. Prevention Science, 21(S1), 54–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-018-0952-z
Walters, K. L., Mohammed, S. A., Evans-Campbell, T., Beltrán, R. E., Chae, D. H., & Duran, B. (2011). BODIES DON’T JUST TELL STORIES, THEY TELL HISTORIES: Embodiment of Historical Trauma among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 8(1), 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742058X1100018X
Walters, K. L., & Simoni, J. M. (2002). Reconceptualizing Native Women’s Health: An “Indigenist” Stress-Coping Model. American Journal of Public Health, 92(4), 520–524. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.4.520
Warber, S. L., Bruyere, R. L., Weintrub, K., & Dieppe, P. (2015). A consideration of the Perspectives of Healing Practitioners on Research into Energy Healing. Global Advances in Health and Medicine, 4(1) https://doi.org/10.7453/gahmj.2015.014.suppl
Watson-Singleton, N. N., Black, A. R., & Spivey, B. N. (2019). Recommendations for a culturally-responsive mindfulness-based intervention for African Americans. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 34, 132–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.11.013
Weber-Pillwax, C. (2004). Indigenous researchers and Indigenous research methods: Cultural influences or cultural determinants of research methods. Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal & Indigenous Community Health, 2(1).
Weber-Pillwax, C. (2003). Identity formation and consciousness with reference to Northern Alberta Cree and Metis indigenous peoples. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Identity-formation-and-consciousness-with-reference-Weber-Pillwax/69b3bf20abf51fc455b39856e6a431e65ae1e582
West, J., Liang, B., & Spinazzola, J. (2017). Trauma sensitive yoga as a complementary treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: A qualitative descriptive analysis. International Journal of Stress Management, 24(2), 173–195. https://doi.org/10.1037/str0000040
Whalen, D. H., Moss, M., & Baldwin, D. (2016). Healing through language: Positive physical health effects of indigenous language use. F1000Research, 5, 852. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.8656.1
Whitbeck, L. B., Adams, G. W., Hoyt, D. R., & Chen, X. (2004). Conceptualizing and Measuring Historical Trauma Among American Indian People. American Journal of Community Psychology, 33(3–4), 119–130. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AJCP.0000027000.77357.31
Wildcroft, T. (2020). Post-lineage yoga. Journal of the British Association for the Study of Religion (JBASR), 21, 92. https://doi.org/10.18792/jbasr.v21i0.42
Willie, F. Y. (2021). Can you feel your language? An exploration of Indigenous urban language learning and the restorative possibilities for mind, body, and spirit. WINHEC: International Journal of Indigenous Education Scholarship, 1. https://doi.org/10.18357/wj161202120287
Wilson, A. (2008). N’tacinowin inna nah’: Our Coming In Stories. Canadian Woman Studies/Les Cahiers de La Femme. https://cws.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/cws/article/view/22131
Wilson, A., Marchesiello, K., & Khalsa, S. B. (2008). Perceived Benefits of Kripalu Yoga Classes in Diverse and Underserved Populations. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 18(1), 65–71. https://doi.org/10.17761/ijyt.18.1.q5152q8222549x18
Wilson, S. (2001). What Is an Indigenous Research Methodology? Canadian Journal of Native Education, 25.
Wilson, S. (2020). Research Is Ceremony: Indigenous Research Methods. Fernwood Publishing.
Wilson, S. (2021a). Progressing Toward an IndigenousResearch Paradigm in Canada and Australia. Canadian Journal of Native Education, Vol. 27 No. 2 (2003). https://doi.org/10.14288/CJNE.V27I2.196353
Wilson, S. (2021b, February 25). Digitizing ceremony. ndigenous Health Research Symposium Speaker Series: Can We Digitize Ceremony? https://eventscalendar.umanitoba.ca/site/healthsciences/event/indigenous-health-research-symposium-speaker-series-can-we-digitize-ceremony/
Yamasaki, Z. (2019). Homepage. Transforming Sexual Trauma through Yoga Teacher Trainer Manual. https://transcending-sexual-trauma-through-yoga.teachable.com/p/home
Yellow Bird, M. (2013). Neurodecolonization: Applying mindfulness research to decolonizing social work. Decolonizing Social Work, 293–310.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top