Login | Register

The Role of Influencer Marketing on Consumer-Based Brand Equity


The Role of Influencer Marketing on Consumer-Based Brand Equity

Lemay, Kelly-Anne (2023) The Role of Influencer Marketing on Consumer-Based Brand Equity. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Lemay_MA_F2023.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Lemay_MA_F2023.pdf - Accepted Version
Restricted to Repository staff only until 1 September 2025.
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


In the current competitive market, businesses explore every possible option to differentiate their brand. They aim to establish a connection between their customers and their brand to build enduring consumer-based brand equity (CBBE). Instead of conventional celebrity endorsements, businesses are often turning to social media influencers for their marketing initiatives. Currently, it is unknown how successful influencer endorsements are compared to more conventional celebrity endorsements. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the impact of celebrity marketing, influencer marketing, and the control marketing on overall brand equity and on the four dimensions of CBBE, namely brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand associations and perceived quality. A randomized 3 (type of endorsement: celebrity vs. influencer vs. control) x 3 (gender: female vs. male vs. control) between-subjects design (n = 253) was conducted. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between all three groups regarding any of the variables of interest. Despite failing to produce the anticipated results, this study still provides a strong foundation for subsequent studies in the field.

Keywords: Social Media, Influencers, Brand Equity, Spokesperson, Brand Loyalty, Brand Awareness, Brand Associations, Perceived Quality

Divisions:Concordia University > John Molson School of Business > Marketing
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Lemay, Kelly-Anne
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Date:August 2023
Thesis Supervisor(s):Grohmann, Bianca
Keywords:Social Media, Influencers, Brand Equity, Spokesperson, Brand Loyalty, Brand Awareness, Brand Associations, Perceived Quality
ID Code:992848
Deposited By: Kelly-Anne Lemay
Deposited On:16 Nov 2023 20:44
Last Modified:16 Nov 2023 20:44


Aaker, D.A. (1991), Managing Brand Equity, The Free Press, New York, NY
Agnihotri, A., & Bhattacharya, S. (2021). Endorsement effectiveness of celebrities versus social
media influencers in the materialistic cultural environment of India. Journal of
International Consumer Marketing, 33(3), 280-302.
Ali, H., & Alqudah, O. (2022). The effects of influencer marketing on overall brand equity
through brand awareness and customer brand engagement. International Journal of Data and Network Science, 6(3), 651-658.
Andreani, F., Gunawan, L., & Haryono, S. (2021). Social media influencer, brand awareness,
and purchase decision among generation z in Surabaya. Journal of Management and Entrepreneurship, 23(1), 18-26.
Andreassen, T. W., & Lindestad, B. (1998). Customer loyalty and complex services: The impact
of corporate image on quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty for customers with varying degrees of service expertise. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 9(1), 7-23.
Ateke, B. W., & Onwujiariri, J. C. (2016). Brand awareness: Does celebrity endorsement
help. Journal of Accounting and Business, 3(1), 246-258.
Audi, M., Al Masri, R., & Ghazzawi, K. (2015). The effect of celebrity endorsement on creating
brand loyalty: an application on the lebanese cosmetic sector’s demand. International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research, 6(5), 273-287.
Audrezet, A., de Kerviler, G., & Moulard, J. G. (2020). Authenticity under threat: When social
media influencers need to go beyond self-presentation. Journal of Business Research, 117, 557-569.
Baniya, R. (2017). Components of celebrity endorsement affecting brand loyalty of Nepali
customers. Journal of Business and Management Research, 2(1-2), 52-65.
Bearden, W. O., Netemeyer, R. G., & Teel, J. E. (1990). Further validation of the
consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence scale. Advances in Consumer Research, 17, 770-776.
Bloemer, J., De Ruyter, K., & Peeters, P. (1998). Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the c
omplex relationship between image, service quality and satisfaction. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 16(7), 276-286.
Boerman, S. C., & Van Reijmersdal, E. A. (2020). Disclosing influencer marketing on YouTube
to children: The moderating role of para-social relationship. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-82.
Boon, S. D., & Lomore, C. D. (2001). Admirer-celebrity relationships among young adults:
Explaining perceptions of celebrity influence on identity. Human Communication Research, 27(3), 432-465.
Booth, N., & Matric, J. A. (2011). Mapping and leveraging influencers in social media to shape
corporate brand perceptions. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 16(3), 184-191.
Breves, P. L., Liebers, N., Abt, M., & Kunze, A. (2019). The perceived fit between instagram
influencers and the endorsed brand: How influencer–brand fit affects source credibility and persuasive effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research, 59(4), 440-454.
Burton, J., Easingwood, C., & Murphy, J. (2001). Using qualitative research to refine service
quality models. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 4(4), 217-223.
Chan, K., Leung Ng, Y., & Luk, E. K. (2013). Impact of celebrity endorsement in advertising on
brand image among Chinese adolescents. Young Consumers, 14(2), 167-179.
Chaudhary, U., & Asthana, A. (2015). Impact of celebrity endorsements on consumer brand
loyalty: Does it really matter. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(12), 220-225.
Chetioui, Y., Benlafqih, H., & Lebdaoui, H. (2020). How fashion influencers contribute to
consumers' purchase intention. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 24(3), 361-380
Cowan, K., & Hunt, L. (2018). What makes digital content influential? A comparison of
celebrities and influencers: An abstract. Academy of Marketing Science World Marketing Congress, 541.
De Jans, S., Van de Sompel, D., De Veirman, M., & Hudders, L. (2020). # Sponsored! How the
recognition of sponsoring on Instagram posts affects adolescents’ brand evaluations through source evaluations. Computers in Human Behavior, 109, 1-15.
DeShields Jr, O. W., Kara, A., & Kaynak, E. (1996). Source effects in purchase decisions: The
impact of physical attractiveness and accent of salesperson. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13(1), 89-101.
De Veirman, M., Cauberghe, V., & Hudders, L. (2017). Marketing through Instagram
influencers: the impact of number of followers and product divergence on brand attitude. International Journal of Advertising, 36(5), 798-828.
Djafarova, E., & Rushworth, C. (2017). Exploring the credibility of online celebrities' Instagram
profiles in influencing the purchase decisions of young female users. Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 1-7.
Dwivedi, A., Johnson, L. W., & McDonald, R. E. (2015). Celebrity endorsement, self-brand
connection and consumer-based brand equity. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 24(5), 449-461.
Erdogan, B. Z. (1999). Celebrity endorsement: A literature review. Journal of Marketing
Management, 15(4), 291-314.
Escalas, J. E. (2004). Narrative processing: Building consumer connections to brands. Journal of
Consumer Psychology, 14(1-2), 168-180.
Farooq, M., & Jabbar, Z. (2014). Role of word of mouth in building CBBE. Elixir Marketing
Management, 73, 26443-47.
Farquhar, P. H. (1989). Managing brand equity. Marketing research, 1(3), 24-33.
Gill, M. S., & Dawra, J. (2010). Evaluating Aaker’s sources of brand equity and the mediating
role of brand image. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 18(3), 189-198.
Goodrich, K., & De Mooij, M. (2014). How ‘social’ are social media? A cross-cultural
comparison of online and offline purchase decision influences. Journal of Marketing Communications, 20(1-2), 103-116.
Grassl, W. (2000). Strategic brand management: building, measuring, and managing brand
equity. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(3), 263-272.
Gräve, J. F. (2017). Exploring the perception of influencers vs. traditional celebrities: Are social
media stars a new type of endorser?. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Social Media & Society, 36, 1-5.
Gräve, J. F., & Bartsch, F. (2021). # Instafame: exploring the endorsement effectiveness of
influencers compared to celebrities. International Journal of Advertising, 1-31.
Guruge, M. C. (2018). Comparison between attributes related to celebrity endorsement and
social media influencer marketing: A conceptual review. Sri Lanka Journal of Marketing, 4(1), 17-37.
Hall, J. (2015). Build authentic audience experiences through influencer marketing. Forbes.
He, S. K. (2022). The impact of social media influencers on consumer brand awareness and
consumer perceived quality towards brand image (Doctoral dissertation, UTAR).
Hermanda, A., Sumarwan, U., & Tinaprillia, N. (2019). The effect of social media influencer on
brand image, self-concept, and purchase intention. Journal of Consumer Sciences, 4(2), 76-89.
Hughes, C., Swaminathan, V., & Brooks, G. (2019). Driving brand engagement through online
social influencers: An empirical investigation of sponsored blogging campaigns. Journal of Marketing, 83(5), 78-96.
Hung, K. (2014). Why celebrity sells: A dual entertainment path model of brand
endorsement. Journal of Advertising, 43(2), 155-166.
Jin, S. V., Muqaddam, A., & Ryu, E. (2019). Instafamous and social media influencer
marketing. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 37(5), 567-579.
Johansen, I. K., & Guldvik, C. S. (2017). Influencer marketing and purchase intentions: how
does influencer marketing affect purchase intentions? (Master's thesis).
Juhlin, L., & Soini, M. (2018). How do influencer marketers affect brand associations? a
semiotic Instagram study in the sports fashion industry.
Jun, S., & Yi, J. (2020). What makes followers loyal? The role of influencer interactivity in
building influencer brand equity. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 29(6), 803-814.
Kamins, M. A., & Gupta, K. (1994). Congruence between spokesperson and product type: A
matchup hypothesis perspective. Psychology & Marketing, 11(6), 569-586.
Kapitan, S., & Silvera, D. H. (2016). From digital media influencers to celebrity endorsers:
attributions drive endorser effectiveness. Marketing Letters, 27, 553-567.
Kapitan, S., van Esch, P., Soma, V., & Kietzmann, J. (2022). Influencer marketing and
authenticity in content creation. Australasian Marketing Journal, 30(4), 342-351.
Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand
equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22.
Keller, K. L. (2003). Brand synthesis: The multidimensionality of brand knowledge. Journal of
Consumer Research, 29(4), 595-600.
Kelman, H. C. (1961). Processes of opinion change. Public Opinion Quarterly, 25(1), 57-78.
Khan, U., & Dhar, R. (2006). Licensing effect in consumer choice. Journal of Marketing
Research, 43(2), 259-266.
Kiang, M. Y., Raghu, T. S., & Shang, K. H. M. (2000). Marketing on the Internet—who can
benefit from an online marketing approach?. Decision Support Systems, 27(4), 383-393.
Kim, S. S., Choe, J. Y. J., & Petrick, J. F. (2018). The effect of celebrity on brand awareness,
perceived quality, brand image, brand loyalty, and destination attachment to a literary festival. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 9, 320-329.
Kumar, S., & Ramana, V. (2019). Celebrity endorsement, consumer based brand equity: A
literature review. International Journal of Management Studies, 6(3), 54-57.
Lampeitl, A., & Åberg, P. (2017). The role of influencers in generating customer-based brand
equity & brand-promoting user-generated content. (Degree Project).
Li, Y., & Peng, Y. (2021). Influencer marketing: purchase intention and its
antecedents. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 39(7), 960-978.
Liu, S. (2021). The impact of influencer marketing on brand engagement: A conceptual
framework. 4th International Conference on Humanities Education and Social Sciences, 2219-2224.
Lou, C., & Yuan, S. (2019). Influencer marketing: how message value and credibility affect
consumer trust of branded content on social media. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 19(1), 58-73.
Lyons, B., & Henderson, K. (2005). Opinion leadership in a computer‐mediated
environment. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 4(5), 3 19-329.
McCracken, G. (1989). Who is the celebrity endorser? Cultural foundations of the endorsement
Process. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 310-321.
McQuarrie, E.F., J. Miller, and B.J. Phillips. 2013. The megaphone effect: Taste and audience in
fashion blogging. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(1), 136–58.
Men, L. R., & Tsai, W. H. S. (2016). Public engagement with CEOs on social media:
Motivations and relational outcomes. Public Relations Review, 42(5), 932-942.
Misra, S., & Beatty, S. E. (1990). Celebrity spokesperson and brand congruence. Journal of
Business Research, 21(2), 159-173
Ndlela, T., & Chuchu, T. (2016). Celebrity endorsement Advertising: Brand awareness, brand
recall, brand loyalty as antecedence of South African young consumers' purchase behaviour. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 8(2 (J)), 79-90.
Ningrat, S., & Yasa, N. K. (2019). The effect of advertising and celebrity endorsement on
purchase intention with brand awareness as intervening variable. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research, 3(10), 221-231.
Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers'
perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39-52.
Ohanian, R. (1991). The impact of celebrity spokespersons' perceived image on consumers'
intention to purchase. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(1), 46-54.
Pappu, R., Quester, P. G., & Cooksey, R. W. (2005). Consumer‐based brand equity: improving
the measurement–empirical evidence. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14(3), 143-154.
Pentina, I., Zhang, L., & Basmanova, O. (2013). Antecedents and consequences of trust in a
social media brand: A cross-cultural study of Twitter. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1546-1555.
Pinto, P. A., & Paramita, E. L. (2021). Social media influencer and brand loyalty on generation
Z: the mediating effect of purchase intention. International Journal of Business, 4(2), 105-115.
Priester, J. R., & Petty, R. E. (1995). Source attributions and persuasion: Perceived honesty as a
determinant of message scrutiny. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(6), 637-654.
Ries, A., & Trout, J. (1972). Positioning cuts through chaos in marketplace. Advertising
Age, 43(1), 51.
Rosengren, S., & Dahlen, M. (2015). Exploring advertising equity: How a brand's past
advertising may affect consumer willingness to approach its future ads. Journal of Advertising, 44(1), 1-13.
Russell, C. A. (1998). Toward a framework of product placement: Theoretical
propositions. ACR North American Advances, 25, 357-362.
Russell, C. A., Stern, B. B., & Stern, B. B. (2006). Consumers, characters, and products: A
balance model of sitcom product placement effects. Journal of Advertising, 35(1), 7-21.
Sabunwala, Z. (2013). Impact of celebrity brand endorsement on brand image and product
purchases - A study for pune region of India. International Journal of Research in Business Management, 1(6), 37-42.
Saini, D., Sharma, M., Gupta, S., & Verma, H. (2021). Effect of social media influencers and
celebrity endorsers on brand loyalty through brand image. Empirical Economics Letters, 20, 161-170.
Sanyal, S. N., & Datta, S. K. (2011). The effect of perceived quality on brand equity: An
empirical study on generic drugs. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 23(5), 604-625.
Schouten, A. P., Janssen, L., & Verspaget, M. (2020). Celebrity vs. influencer endorsements in
advertising: the role of identification, credibility, and product-endorser fit. International Journal of Advertising, 39(2), 258-281.
Severi, E., & Ling, K. C. (2013). The mediating effects of brand association, brand loyalty, brand
image and perceived quality on brand equity. Asian Social Science, 9(3), 125.
Shan, Y., Chen, K. J., & Lin, J. S. (2020). When social media influencers endorse brands: The
effects of self-influencer congruence, parasocial identification, and perceived endorser motive. International Journal of Advertising, 39(5), 590-610.
Sharma, R. (2015). Effect of celebrity endorsements on brand quality perceptions & brand
loyalty: A comparative study of luxury & non luxury brands in India. AIMA Journal of Management and Research, 9(4), 1-13.
Sharma, R. (2016). Effect of celebrity endorsements on dimensions of customer-based brand
equity: Empirical evidence from Indian luxury market. Journal of Creative Communications, 11(3), 264-281.
Sharma, K. I. R. A. N., & Kumar, S. S. (2013). Celebrity endorsement in advertising; can it lead
to brand loyalty in the long run. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services, and Management Research, 2(3), 73-79.
Shugan, S. M. (2005). Brand loyalty programs: are they shams?. Marketing Science, 24(2), 185-
Simonin, B. L., & Ruth, J. A. (1998). Is a company known by the company it keeps? Assessing
the spillover effects of brand alliances on consumer brand attitudes. Journal of Marketing Research, 35(1), 30.
Sivesan, S. (2013). Impact of celebrity endorsement on brand equity in cosmetic
product. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 2(4), 1-11.
Smith, D., Jacobson, J., & Rudkowski, J. L. (2021). Employees as influencers: measuring
employee brand equity in a social media age. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 30(6), 834-853.
Spears, N., & Singh, S. N. (2004). Measuring attitude toward the brand and purchase
intentions. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 26(2), 53-66.
Spry, A., Pappu, R., & Cornwell, T. B. (2011). Celebrity endorsement, brand credibility and
brand equity. European Journal of Marketing, 45(6), 882-909.
Stahl, F., Heitmann, M., Lehmann, D. R., & Neslin, S. A. (2012). The impact of brand equity on
customer acquisition, retention, and profit margin. Journal of Marketing, 76(4), 44-63.
Tepeci, M. (1999). Increasing brand loyalty in the hospitality industry. International Journal of
Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11(5), 223-229.
Thornton, C. E. (2018). Intimacy issues: a content analysis of intimacy levels and engagement
rates between celebrities and influencers (Doctoral dissertation).
Till, B.D. and Shimp, T.A. (1998). Endorsers in advertising: the case of negative celebrity
information. Journal of Advertising, 27(1), 67-81.
Trivedi, J., & Sama, R. (2020). The effect of influencer marketing on consumers’ brand
admiration and online purchase intentions: An emerging market perspective. Journal of Internet Commerce, 19(1), 103-124.
Uzunoğlu, E., & Kip, S. M. (2014). Brand communication through digital influencers:
Leveraging blogger engagement. International Journal of Information Management, 34(5), 592-602.
Wang, S. W., & Scheinbaum, A. C. (2018). Enhancing brand credibility via celebrity
endorsement: Trustworthiness trumps attractiveness and expertise. Journal of Advertising Research, 58(1), 16-32.
Washburn, J. H., & Plank, R. E. (2002). Measuring brand equity: An evaluation of a consumer-
based brand equity scale. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(1), 46-62.
Wellman, M. L., Stoldt, R., Tully, M., & Ekdale, B. (2020). Ethics of authenticity: Social media
influencers and the production of sponsored content. Journal of Media Ethics, 35(2), 68-82.
Wiedmann, K. P., & Von Mettenheim, W. (2020). Attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise–
social influencers’ winning formula? Journal of Product & Brand Management, 30(5), 707-725.
Wilcox, K., Kramer, T., & Sen, S. (2011). Indulgence or self-control: A dual process model of
the effect of incidental pride on indulgent choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(1), 151-163.
Wilcox, K., & Stephen, A. T. (2013). Are close friends the enemy? Online social networks, self-
esteem, and self-control. Journal of Consumer research, 40(1), 90-103.
Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based
brand equity scale. Journal of Business Research, 52(1), 1-14.
Zhang, L., Zhu, J., & Liu, Q. (2012). A meta-analysis of mobile commerce adoption and the
moderating effect of culture. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1902-1911.
Zhou, F., Mou, J., Su, Q., & Wu, Y. C. J. (2020). How does consumers' Perception of Sports
Stars' Personal Brand Promote Consumers’ brand love? A mediation model of global brand equity. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 54, 1-10.
Zoghaib, A. (2017). The contribution of a brand spokesperson’s voice to consumer-based brand
equity. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 26(5), 492-502
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top