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On the Generation of Cyber Threat Intelligence: Malware and Network Traffic Analyses

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On the Generation of Cyber Threat Intelligence: Malware and Network Traffic Analyses

Boukhtouta, Amine (2016) On the Generation of Cyber Threat Intelligence: Malware and Network Traffic Analyses. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

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Abstract

In recent years, malware authors drastically changed their course on the subject of threat design and implementation. Malware authors, namely, hackers or cyber-terrorists perpetrate new forms of cyber-crimes involving more innovative hacking techniques. Being motivated by financial or political reasons, attackers target computer systems ranging from personal computers to organizations’ networks to collect and steal sensitive data
as well as blackmail, scam people, or scupper IT infrastructures. Accordingly, IT security experts face new challenges, as they need to counter cyber-threats proactively. The challenge takes a continuous allure of a fight, where cyber-criminals are obsessed by the idea of outsmarting security defenses. As such, security experts have to elaborate an effective strategy to counter cyber-criminals. The generation of cyber-threat intelligence is of a paramount importance as stated in the following quote: “the field is owned by who owns the intelligence”. In this thesis, we address the problem of generating timely and relevant cyber-threat intelligence for the purpose of detection, prevention and mitigation
of cyber-attacks. To do so, we initiate a research effort, which falls into: First, we analyze prominent cyber-crime toolkits to grasp the inner-secrets and workings of advanced threats. We dissect prominent malware like Zeus and Mariposa botnets to uncover
their underlying techniques used to build a networked army of infected machines. Second, we investigate cyber-crime infrastructures, where we elaborate on the generation of a cyber-threat intelligence for situational awareness. We adapt a graph-theoretic approach to study infrastructures used by malware to perpetrate malicious activities. We build a scoring mechanism based on a page ranking algorithm to measure the badness of
infrastructures’ elements, i.e., domains, IPs, domain owners, etc. In addition, we use the min-hashing technique to evaluate the level of sharing among cyber-threat infrastructures during a period of one year. Third, we use machine learning techniques to fingerprint malicious IP traffic. By fingerprinting, we mean detecting malicious network flows and their attribution to malware families. This research effort relies on a ground truth collected
from the dynamic analysis of malware samples. Finally, we investigate the generation of cyber-threat intelligence from passive DNS streams. To this end, we design and implement
a system that generates anomalies from passive DNS traffic. Due to the tremendous nature of DNS data, we build a system on top of a cluster computing framework, namely, Apache Spark [70]. The integrated analytic system has the ability to detect anomalies
observed in DNS records, which are potentially generated by widespread cyber-threats.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Electrical and Computer Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Boukhtouta, Amine
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Electrical and Computer Engineering
Date:28 April 2016
Thesis Supervisor(s):Debbabi, Mourad
Keywords:malware, cyber-threat intelligence, malicious traffic detection, analysis, machine learning, data mining, graph theory
ID Code:981284
Deposited By: AMINE BOUKHTOUTA
Deposited On:16 Jun 2016 15:43
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:52

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