Login | Register

The Influence of Operational Sex Ratio on the Intensity of Competition in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) during Rut: An Experimental Approach

Title:

The Influence of Operational Sex Ratio on the Intensity of Competition in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) during Rut: An Experimental Approach

Alo, Franco M. (2016) The Influence of Operational Sex Ratio on the Intensity of Competition in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) during Rut: An Experimental Approach. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
Alo_MSc_F2016.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.
3MB

Abstract

We examined how manipulating operational sex ratio (OSR: the ratio of reproductively active males to fertilizable females), could affect the intensity of competition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) using an experimental approach to test mating systems theory on the very first field study on large mammals of its kind. Study was conducted at the Kutuharju Reindeer Research Station where we had access to a herd of semi-domesticated reindeer. We manipulated OSR on two levels in two enclosures, a female biased treatment (3♂:6♀ = OSR 0.5) and a sex balanced treatment (3♂:3♀ = OSR 1). Female reindeer were injected with 1 ml of estrumate prior to a trial to promote early and synchronized oestrous to assure competition among our 1.5-year-old males. We predicted that with increasing OSR, male-male aggression would increase and courtship behaviours would decrease, unless males adopted alternative mating tactics. Conversely, female-female aggression was predicted to decrease with increasing OSR. The propensity for males to act agonistically was predicted to increase with increasing OSR. Male-male rate of aggression did not differ between treatments. Female-female rate of aggression was found to decrease significantly with increasing OSR. Propensity to act agonistically was not significantly different between treatments. 1.5-year-old males may be too young and inexperienced to behave predictably. We conclude that the intensity of competition cannot be predicted at the group level based on OSR alone, though some trends emerged.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Biology
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Alo, Franco M.
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M. Sc.
Program:Biology
Date:August 2016
Thesis Supervisor(s):Weladji, Robert
Keywords:operational sex ratio, polygyny, Rangifer tarandus, mating systems, intraspecific competition
ID Code:981445
Deposited By: FRANCO ALO
Deposited On:08 Nov 2016 19:08
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:53

References:

Adams, C. A., R. T. Bowyer, J. E. Rowell, W. E. Hauer, and J.

A. Jenks. 2001. Scent marking by male caribou: an experimental test of rubbing behavior. Rangifer 21:21–27.

Andersson, M., and Y. Iwasa. 1996. Sexual selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11:53–58.

Bebié, N., and A. G. McElligott. 2006. Female aggression in red deer: Does it indicate competition for mates? Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 71:347–355.

Body, G., R. B. Weladji, Ø. Holand, and M. Nieminen. 2014. Highly Competitive Reindeer Males Control Female Behavior during the Rut. PloS one 9:e95618.

Bolker, B. M., M. E. Brooks, C. J. Clark, S. W. Geange, J. R. Poulsen, M. H. H. Stevens, and J.-S. S. White. 2009. Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24:127–135.

Bolker, B., and R. D. C. Team. 2014. bbmle: Tools for general maximum likelihood estimation. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=bbmle.

Bro-Jørgensen, J. 2011. Intra-and intersexual conflicts and cooperation in the evolution of mating strategies: lessons learnt from ungulates. Evolutionary Biology 38:28–41. Springer.

Bro-Jørgensen, J., and W. M. Pangle. 2010. Male Topi Antelopes Alarm Snort Deceptively to Retain Females for Mating. The American Naturalist 176:E33–E39.

Burnham, K.P., and Anderson, D.R. 1998. Model selection and inference: a practical information-theoretic approach: 60-64.

Carranza, J., F. Alvarez, and T. Redondo. 1990. Territoriality as a mating strategy in red deer. Animal Behaviour 40:79–88. Elsevier.

Clutton-Brock, T. 2007. Sexual Selection in Males and Females. Science 318:1882–1885.

Clutton-Brock, T. 2009. Sexual selection in females. Animal Behaviour 77:3–11.

Clutton-Brock, T. H. 1989. Mammalian mating systems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing papers of a Biological character. Royal Society (Great Britain) 236:339–372.

Clutton-Brock, T. H., and A. C. Vincent. 1991. Sexual selection and the potential reproductive rates of males and females. Nature 351:58–60.

Clutton-Brock, T. H., K. E. McComb, and J. C. Deutsch. 1996. Multiple factors affect the distribution of females in lek-breeding ungulates: a rejoinder to Carbone and Taborsky. Behavioral Ecology 7:373–378.

Clutton-Brock, T., and K. McAuliffe. 2009. Female Mate Choice in Mammals. The Quarterly review of biology 84:3–27.

Clutton-Brock, T., and K. McComb. 1993. Experimental tests of copying and mate choice in fallow deer (Dama dama). Behavioral Ecology 4:191–193.

Cotton, S., J. Small, and A. Pomiankowski. 2006. Sexual Selection and Condition-Dependent Mate Preferences. Current Biology 16:R755–R765.

Darwin, C. 1871. Sexual selection and the descent of man. Murray, London.

de Jong, K., E. Forsgren, H. Sandvik, and T. Amundsen. 2012. Measuring mating competition correctly: available evidence supports operational sex ratio theory. Behavioral Ecology 23:1170–1177.

de Vries, H. 1998. Finding a dominance order most consistent with a linear hierarchy: a new procedure and review. Animal Behaviour 55:827–843.

Denoël, M., M.-P. Hector, and P. Poncin. 2005. Courtship behavior in the Alpine newt Triturus alpestris at two different densities of males. Herpetologica 61:373–379.

Djaković, N., Ø. Holand, A. L. Hovland, K. H. Røed, R. B. Weladji, E. Fjeldstad, and M. Nieminen. 2012. Association patterns and kinship in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) during rut. Acta Ethologica 15:165–171 .

Djaković, N., Ø. Holand, A. L. Hovland, R. B. Weladji, K. H. Røed, and M. Nieminen. 2014. Effects of males’ presence on female behaviour during the rut. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 27:148–160.

Eloranta, E., and M. Nieminen. 1986. Calving of the experimental reindeer herd in Kaamanen during 1970 - 85. Rangifer 6:115–121.

Emlen, S. T., and L. W. Oring. 1977. Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems. Science 197:215–223.

Ginsberg, J. R., and E. J. Milner Gulland. 1994. Sex‐Biased Harvesting and Population Dynamics in Ungulates: Implications for Conservation and Sustainable Use. Conservation Biology 8:157–166.

Grant, J. W. A., and P. E. Foam. 2002. Effect of operational sex ratio on female-female versus male–-male competitive aggression. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:2242–2246.

Head, M. L., A. K. Lindholm, and R. Brooks. 2007. Operational sex ratio and density do not affect directional selection on male sexual ornaments and behavior. Evolution 62:135–144.

Holand, Ø., L. L’Italien, R. B. Weladji, N. Djaković, K. Røed, A. L. Hovland, and M. Nieminen. 2012. Shit happens–a glimpse into males’ mating tactics in a polygynous ungulate-the reindeer. Rangifer 32:65–72.

Holand, Ø., R. B. Weladji, K. H. Røed, H. Gjøstein, J. Kumpula, J. M. Gaillard, M. E. Smith, and M. Nieminen. 2006. Male age structure influences females’ mass change during rut in a polygynous ungulate: the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 59:682–688.

Hurlbert, S. H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the Design of Ecological Field Experiments. Ecological Monographs 54:187–211. Ecological Society of America.

Isvaran, K. 2005. Variation in male mating behaviour within ungulate populations: patterns and processes. Current Science 89:1192–1199.

Jirotkul. 1999a. Operational sex ratio influences female preference and male-male competition in guppies. Animal Behaviour 58:8–8.

Jirotkul. 1999b. Population density influences male-male competition in guppies. Animal Behaviour 58:7–7.

Klug, H., C. I. Kontax, S. Annis, and N. Vasudevan. 2008. Operational sex ratio affects nest tending and aggression in male flagfish Jordanella floridae Goode & Bean. Journal of Fish Biology 72:1295–1305.

Kojola, I. 1991. Influence of age on the reproductive effort of male reindeer. Journal of Mammalogy 72:208–210.

Kvarnemo, C., and I. Ahnesjo. 1996. The dynamics of operational sex ratios and competition for mates. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11:404–408.

Lindenfors, P., J. L. Gittleman, and K. E. Jones. 2007. Sexual size dimorphism in mammals. Sex, size and gender roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism:16–26. Oxford University Press Inc. New York.

L’Italien, L., R. B. Weladji, Ø. Holand, K. H. Røed, M. Nieminen, and S. D. Côté. 2012. Mating Group Size and Stability in Reindeer Rangifer tarandus: The Effects of Male Characteristics, Sex Ratio and Male Age Structure. Ethology 118:783–792.

Martin, P., and P. P. G. Bateson. 1993. Measuring behaviour: an introductory guide. Cambridge University Press.

McElligott, A. G., M. P. Gammell, H. C. Harty, D. R. Paini, D. T. Murphy, J. T. Walsh, and T. J. Hayden. 2001. Sexual size dimorphism in fallow deer (Dama dama): do larger, heavier males gain greater mating success? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 49:266–272.

Mills, S. C., and J. D. Reynolds. 2003. Operational sex ratio and alternative reproductive behaviours in the European bitterling, Rhodeus sericeus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 54:98–104.

Mysterud, A., Ø. Holand, K. H. Røed, H. Gjøstein, J. Kumpula, and M. Nieminen. 2003. Effects of age, density and sex ratio on reproductive effort in male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Journal of Zoology 261:341–344.

Noldus Information Technology. 1998. Matman reference manual. Version 1.1 for Windows. Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Pelletier, F., J. T. Hogg, and M. Festa-Bianchet. 2006. Male mating effort in a polygynous ungulate. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 60:645–654.

Pérez-González, J., and J. Carranza. 2011. Female aggregation interacts with population structure to influence the degree of polygyny in red deer. Animal Behaviour 82:957–970.

R Core Team (2015). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org/.

Reynolds, J. D. 1996. Animal breeding systems. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11:68–72.

Ropstad, E. 2000. Reproduction in female reindeer. Animal Reproduction Science 60-61:561–570.

Røed, K. H., Ø. Holand, M. E. Smith, H. Gjøstein, J. Kumpula, and M. Nieminen. 2002. Reproductive success in reindeer males in a herd with varying sex ratio. Molecular Ecology 11:1239–1243.

Sprenger, D., R. Lange, and N. Anthes. 2011. Population density and group size effects on reproductive behavior in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:107.

Strong, J. S. 2015. Investigation of personality in subdominant male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and its relation to somatic cost and reproductive success [MSc thesis]. Concordia University, Montreal.

Tennenhouse, E. M., R. B. Weladji, Ø. Holand, and M. Nieminen. 2012. Timing of reproductive effort differs between young and old dominant male reindeer. Annales Zoologici Fennici 49:152–160.

Tennenhouse, E. M., R. B. Weladji, Ø. Holand, K. H. Røed, and M. Nieminen. 2011. Mating group composition influences somatic costs and activity in rutting dominant male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:287–295.

Thiele, J., and B. Markussen. 2012. Potential of GLMM in modelling invasive spread. CAB Reviews 7:1–10.

Uccheddu, S., G. Body, R. B. Weladji, Ø. Holand, and M. Nieminen. 2015. Foraging competition in larger groups overrides harassment avoidance benefits in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Oecologia 3:711–718.

Weir, L. K., J. W. A. Grant, and J. A. Hutchings. 2011. The Influence of Operational Sex Ratio on the Intensity of Competition for Mates. The American Naturalist 177:167–176.

Young, M. J., L. W. Simmons, and J. P. Evans. 2010. Pre- and post-mating sexual selection both favor large males in a rainbowfish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64:915–925.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top