Login | Register

Composite Laminates Made by Automated Fiber Placement of Dry Fibers and Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

Title:

Composite Laminates Made by Automated Fiber Placement of Dry Fibers and Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

Gharabegi, Norvan (2018) Composite Laminates Made by Automated Fiber Placement of Dry Fibers and Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
Gharabegi_MASc_S2018.pdf - Accepted Version
7MB

Abstract

Automation in production is crucial to increase productivity, reduce costs, reduce waste, and to enhance repeatability. Automation in the aerospace industry is being adopted by large original equipment manufacturers in order to meet increasing demands with the use of Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) or Automated Tape Laying (ATP) machines. These machines process conventional pre-impregnated materials which are then processed using large autoclaves. The use of AFP or ATL systems for large structures such as wing skins or fuselages have proven to be effective compared to traditional methods. Autoclave curing systems force manufacturers to invest large amounts of capital and operational costs associated to autoclaves. Out-of-autoclave (OOA) prepreg materials have been developed in order to remove the need for autoclave, however processing these types of materials require longer cure times and extensive debulking, which counters productivity. Dry fiber tapes have been developed by materials suppliers that can be processed using AFP/ATL equipment to manufacture dry preforms. These dry preforms can then be impregnated using a variety of resin transfer molding methods. This work focuses on developing a process window for dry automated fiber placement (DAFP) using an AFP machine equipped with a hot gas torch, impregnation of dry fiber preform using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and evaluating the laminates quality and mechanical properties. Properties determined show to be in the realms of autoclave curing and OOA curing systems presently qualified in the aerospace industry. In addition, a cost analysis shows DAFP VARTM to be a competitive method of production comparing to current material systems.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Gharabegi, Norvan
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Mechanical Engineering
Date:29 March 2018
Thesis Supervisor(s):Hoa, Suong Van and Hojjati, Mehdi
Keywords:Dry fiber placement, Automated composite manufacturing, composite, VARTM
ID Code:983680
Deposited By: NORVAN GHARABEGI
Deposited On:11 Jun 2018 03:14
Last Modified:11 Jun 2018 03:14

References:

[1] S. V. Hoa, "Automated composites manufacturing," Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, p. 113, March 2015.
[2] Composites World, "A350 XWB update: Smart manufacturing," 1 September 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/a350-xwb-update-smart-manufacturing. [Accessed 1 March 2017].
[3] Seattle Times, "Massive, speedy robots ready to build composite wings for Boeing 777X," 5 February 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.seattletimes.com/business/boeing-aerospace/massive-speedy-robots-ready-to-build-composite-wings-for-boeing-777x/. [Accessed 1 March 2017].
[4] Composites World, "The market for OOA aerocomposites," 4 March 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/the-market-for-ooa-aerocomposites-2013-2022. [Accessed 2 March 2017].
[5] R. Tong, S.V. Hoa, M. Chen, "Cost Analysis on L-shape Composite Component Manufacturing," in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on composite materials, 2011.
[6] R.A. Witik et al., "Assessing the economic and environmental potential of out of autoclave processing," in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on composite materials, Jeju Island, 2011.

[7] D. Lukaszewicz. C. Ward, K. Potter, "The engineering aspects of automated prepreg layup: History, present and future," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 997-1009, 2011.
[8] Compostes World, "The Markets: Aerospace (2015)," 12 1 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/the-markets-aerospace-2015. [Accessed 1 April 2017].
[9] J. Sloan, "ATL and AFP: Defining the megatrends in composite aerostructures," Composites World, 30 June 2008. [Online]. Available: http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/atl-and-afp-defining-the-megatrends-in-composite-aerostructures. [Accessed 25 August 2017].
[10] Electroimpact, "Composite Manufacturing," Electroimpact Inc., 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.electroimpact.com/Products/Composites/Overview.aspx. [Accessed 28 August 2017].
[11] Automated Dynamics, "Automation Equipment: Media Galleries," 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.automateddynamics.com/automation-equipment. [Accessed 28 August 2017].
[12] K. K. Subramanian, "Why carbon fiber is preferred for aircraft bodies?," Quora, 9 March 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.quora.com/Why-carbon-fiber-is-preferred-for-aircraft-bodies. [Accessed 28 August 2017].
[13] D. Dawson, "Automation: Robots taking off in commercial aircraft," Composites World, 26 February 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/automation-robots-taking-off-in-commercial-aircraft. [Accessed 28 August 2017].
[14] G. Gardiner, "Out-of-Autoclave prepregs: Hype or Revolution?," Composites World, 1 Jan 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/out-of-autoclave-prepregs-hype-or-revolution. [Accessed 22 August 2017].
[15] T. Centea, L.K. Grunenfelder, S.R. Nutt, "A review of out-of-autocalve prepregs - Material properties, process phenomena, and manufacturing considerations," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 70, no. 2015, pp. 123-154, 2015.
[16] S. V. Hoa, Principles of the Manufacturing of Composite Materials, Montreal: DEStech Publications, 2017.
[17] Owens Corning, "Multiaxial Non-Crimp Fabric (NFC) Reinforcements," February 2014. [Online]. Available: https://dcpd6wotaa0mb.cloudfront.net/mdms/dms/CSB/10018955/10018955-%E2%80%93-Multiaxial-NCF-brochure.pdf. [Accessed 23 August 2017].
[18] S. V. Lomov, Non-Crimp Fabric Composites: Manufacturing, Properties and Application, Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2011.
[19] G.A. Bibo, P.J. Hogg, M. Kemp, "Mechanical Characterization of Glass and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite made with Non-Crimp Fabrics," Composite Science and Technology, vol. PII, no. 57, pp. 1221-1241, 1997.
[20] G. Gardiner, "CSeries Composite Wing," Composites World, 14 October 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.compositesworld.com/blog/post/cseries-composite-wing. [Accessed 23 August 2017].
[21] Bombardier Aerospace, CSeries - Transonic Wing, Belfast: YouTube, 2013.
[22] G. Marsh, "Bombardier throws down the gauntlet with CSeries airliner," Reinforced Plastics, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 22-26, 2011.
[23] X. Song, "Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM): Model Development and Verification," Ph.D. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 2003.
[24] L. Aktas, D.P. Bauman, S.T. Bowen, M. Saha, M.C. Altan, "Effect of Distribution Media Length and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Formation of Voids in VARTM Composites," Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 1-9, 14 October 2011.
[25] Mitsubishi Heavy Industies Ltd., "Research in the Application of the VaRTM Technique to the Fabrication of Primary Aircraft Composite Structures," Mitsubishi Heavy Industies Technical Review, vol. 42, no. 5, 2005.
[26] NLR, "NLR wins award for new fiber placement processes," 30 January 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.nlr.org/news/nlr-wins-award-for-new-fibre-placement-processes/. [Accessed 13 September 2017].
[27] NLR Aerospace, "AUTOW: Automated Preform Fabrication by Dry Tow Placement," January 2009. [Online]. Available: https://trimis.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/project/documents/20120519_102727_52292_autow.pdf. [Accessed 15 Dec 2017].
[28] European Commission, "Community Research and Development Information Service," 25 May 2017. [Online]. Available: http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/91195_en.html. [Accessed 14 September 2017].
[29] M. Belhaj et al., "Dry fiber automated placement of carbon fibrous preforms," Elsevier, vol. Composites: Part B, pp. 107-111, 2013.

[30] R. Graupner, "Presentations: LCC-symposium," 24 October 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.lcc.mw.tum.de/en/5th-anniversary-of-lcc/symposium/presentations/. [Accessed 1 November 2017].
[31] O. Rimmer, D. Becker, P. Mitschang, "Maximizing the out-of-plane-permeability of preforms manufactured by dry fiber placement," Polymer & Composite Science, vol. 2, no. 3-4, pp. 93-102, 2016.
[32] Hexcel, "HiTape: A new efficient composite solution for Primary Aircraft Structures," 2018. [Online]. Available: http://www.hexcel.com/user_area/content_media/raw/HiTape.pdf. [Accessed 26 February 2018].
[33] G. Dell'Anno et al., "Automated manufacture of 3D reinforced aerospace composite structures," International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 22-40, 2012.
[34] L. Veldenz et al., "Characteristics and Processability of Bindered Dry Fiber Material for Automated Fiber Placement," in 17th European Conference on Composite Materials, Munich, 2016.
[35] R. L. Pinckney, "Fabrication of the V-22 composite aft fuselage using automated fiber placement," 1993. [Online]. Available: https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19930021254.pdf. [Accessed 24 August 2017].
[36] Hexcel, "HexTow IM7 Carbon Fiber," Hexcel, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.hexcel.com/user_area/content_media/raw/IM7_HexTow_DataSheet.pdf. [Accessed 1 September 2017].

[37] Cytec Industries, "PRISM™ EP2400 RESIN SYSTEM," 12 March 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.cytec.com/sites/default/files/datasheets/PRISM_EP2400_031912.pdf. [Accessed 1 January 2017].
[38] Brookfield Ametek, "Brookfield CAP 2000+ Operating Instructions," [Online]. Available: http://www.brookfieldengineering.com/-/media/ametekbrookfield/manuals/lab%20viscometers/cap2000%20instructions.pdf?la=en. [Accessed 15 July 2017].
[39] Epoxy Technology Inc., "Tg-Glass Transition Temperature for Epoxies," 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.epotek.com/site/files/Techtips/pdfs/tip23.pdf. [Accessed 27 July 2017].
[40] PerkinElmer, "Dynamic MEchanical Analysis (DMA): A Beginner's Guide," 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.perkinelmer.ca/CMSResources/Images/44-74546GDE_IntroductionToDMA.pdf. [Accessed 5 August 2017].
[41] C.F. Bandeira et al., "Comparison of Glass Transition Temperature Values of Composite Polymer Obtained by TMA and DSC," Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 719-720, pp. 91-95, 2015.
[42] TA Instruments, "Interpreting Unexpected Events and Transitions in DSC Results," [Online]. Available: http://www.tainstruments.com/pdf/literature/TA039.pdf. [Accessed 1 August 2017].
[43] National Institute for Aviation Research, "Hexcel 8552 IM& Unidirectional Prepreg," Wichita State University, Wichita, 2011.

[44] M. Scafè et al., "Experimental determination of compressive strength of an unidirectional composite lamina: indirect estimate by Using Back-out Factor (BF)," in Convegno Nazionale IGF XXII, Rome, 2013.
[45] HEXCEL, "HexPly 8552 Epoxy Matrix," Hexcel, 2014.
[46] Cytec Industies, "CYCOM 5320-1 Epoxy Resin System," October 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.cytec.com/sites/default/files/datasheets/CYCOM%205320-1%20Rev%20CR5.pdf. [Accessed 8 August 2017].
[47] CHM-17, COMPOSITE MATERIALS HANDBOOK: VOLUME 1 POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES GUIDELINES FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS, SAE International, 2012.
[48] Control Panels Incorporated, "Blue M Lo-850 Lab Oven, 30 cu. ft.," 2018. [Online]. Available: http://www.cpiheat.com/Blue-M-Lab-Ovens-p/881011.htm. [Accessed 11 February 2018].
[49] Fiberglass Supply, "Carbon Fiber and Composite Supplies," [Online]. Available: http://www.fiberglasssupply.com/Product_Catalog/Vacuum_Bagging/vacuum_bagging.html. [Accessed 9 January 2018].
[50] Heraeus, "Intelligent heat for Automated Fibre Placement," in proceedings of International Symposium on Automated Composites Manufacturing (ACM4), Montreal, 2017.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top