Login | Register

The effects of the spatial structure of the environment on species coexistence and related consequences to local and regional community structure

Title:

The effects of the spatial structure of the environment on species coexistence and related consequences to local and regional community structure

Donelle, Louis (2018) The effects of the spatial structure of the environment on species coexistence and related consequences to local and regional community structure. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
MSc_LouisDonelle_final.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.
13MB

Abstract

Spatial environmental heterogeneity is widely accepted and cited as a mechanism underlying the structure of ecological communities. Most empirical evidence related to the effects of environmental heterogeneity comes from assessing how local environments vary in relation to one another and how this variation affects community (and metacommunity) structure. However, similar levels of environmental variation are often structured differently in space, likely affecting species distributions and the ways in which they coexist. Yet, the spatial structure of environmental variation received very little attention. In this study, we set out for the first time a model to understand the effects of the spatial structure of the environment on metacommunity dynamics and its effects on species co-existence at local and regional levels. We built a metacommunity model in a spatially explicit landscape with spatially structured environmental conditions and a continuum of specialist to generalist species that competed for space. Dispersal mortality was set as a function of species’ environmental tolerances and the environmental variation experienced during dispersal. The spatial structure of the environment was found to increase local and regional coexistence, while also selecting for more specialist species. In landscapes with strong spatial structure, patches with similar environmental values were clustered together, thus facilitating the successful colonization of suitable patches by specialist species. Conversely, weakly structured landscapes selected for generalist species. As such, increased environmental spatialization fostered niche partitioning, facilitating coexistence and, as a result, increasing local and regional diversity.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Biology
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Donelle, Louis
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M. Sc.
Program:Biology
Date:11 September 2018
Thesis Supervisor(s):Peres-Neto, Pedro and Filotas, Élise
Keywords:Coexistence, Metacommunity, Dispersal, Specialization, Spatial structure
ID Code:984465
Deposited By: Louis Donelle
Deposited On:16 Nov 2018 16:34
Last Modified:16 Nov 2018 16:34

References:

Aarestrup, K., N. Jepsen, A. Koed, and S. Pedersen. 2005. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream. Journal of Fish Biology 66:721-728.
Abrams, P. 1983. The theory of limiting similarity. Annual review of Ecology and Systematics 14:359-376.
Allen, J. D., and J. S. McAlister. 2007. Testing rates of planktonic versus benthic predation in the field. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 347:77-87.
Amarasekare, P. 2003. Competitive coexistence in spatially structured environments: a synthesis. Ecology letters 6:1109-1122.
Amarasekare, P., M. F. Hoopes, N. Mouquet, and M. Holyoak. 2004. Mechanisms of coexistence in competitive metacommunities. American Naturalist 164:310-326.
Amarasekare, P., and R. M. Nisbet. 2001. Spatial heterogeneity, source-sink dynamics, and the local coexistence of competing species. American Naturalist 158:572-584.
Bar-Massada, A., R. Kent, and Y. Carmel. 2014. Environmental heterogeneity affects the location of modelled communities along the niche–neutrality continuum. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281:20133249.
Bonnet, X., G. Naulleau, and R. Shine. 1999. The dangers of leaving home: dispersal and mortality in snakes. Biological Conservation 89:39-50.
Bonte, D., H. Van Dyck, J. M. Bullock, A. Coulon, M. Delgado, M. Gibbs, V. Lehouck, E. Matthysen, K. Mustin, and M. Saastamoinen. 2012. Costs of dispersal. Biological Reviews 87:290-312.
Borcard, D., P. Legendre, and P. Drapeau. 1992. Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation. Ecology 73:1045-1055.
Bornette, G., C. Amoros, and N. Lamouroux. 1998. Aquatic plant diversity in riverine wetlands: the role of connectivity. Journal of Freshwater Biology 39:267-283.
Brown, B. L., E. R. Sokol, J. Skelton, and B. Tornwall. 2017. Making sense of metacommunities: dispelling the mythology of a metacommunity typology. Oecologia 183:643-652.
Brown, J. H., and A. Kodric-Brown. 1977. Turnover rates in insular biogeography: effect of immigration on extinction. Ecology 58:445-449.
Brown, J. S., and N. B. Pavlovic. 1992. Evolution in heterogeneous environments: effects of migration on habitat specialization. Evolutionary Ecology 6:360-382.
Büchi, L., P.-A. Christin, and A. H. Hirzel. 2009. The influence of environmental spatial structure on the life-history traits and diversity of species in a metacommunity. Ecological Modelling 220:2857-2864.
Büchi, L., and S. Vuilleumier. 2012. Dispersal strategies, few dominating or many coexisting: the effect of environmental spatial structure and multiple sources of mortality. PloS one 7:e34733.
Büchi, L., and S. Vuilleumier. 2014. Coexistence of specialist and generalist species is shaped by dispersal and environmental factors. American Naturalist 183:612-624.
Cadotte, M. W., D. V. Mai, S. Jantz, M. D. Collins, M. Keele, and J. A. Drake. 2006. On testing the competition-colonization trade-off in a multispecies assemblage. American Naturalist 168:704-709.
Cadotte, M. W., and C. M. Tucker. 2017. Should environmental filtering be abandoned? Trends in ecology & Evolution 32:429-437.
Calcagno, V., N. Mouquet, P. Jarne, and P. David. 2006. Coexistence in a metacommunity: the competition–colonization trade‐off is not dead. Ecology letters 9:897-907.
Carnicer, J., L. Brotons, D. Sol, and M. De Cáceres. 2008. Random sampling, abundance–extinction dynamics and niche‐filtering immigration constraints explain the generation of species richness gradients. Global Ecology Biogeography 17:352-362.
Chambers, J. M., and T. J. Hastie. 1992. Statistical models in S. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole Advanced Books & Software Pacific Grove, CA.
Chesson, P. 2000. General theory of competitive coexistence in spatially-varying environments. Theoretical population biology 58:211-237.
Chesson, P. 2018. Updates on mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Journal of Ecology 106:1773-1794.
Chesson, P. L. 1983. Coexistence of competitors in a stochastic environment: the storage effect. Pages 188-198 Population biology. Springer.
Clements, F. E. 1936. Nature and structure of the climax. Journal of Ecology 24:252-284.
Codeco, C., and J. Grover. 2001. Competition along a spatial gradient of resource supply: a microbial experimental model. American Naturalist 157:300-315.
Condit, R., N. Pitman, E. G. Leigh, J. Chave, J. Terborgh, R. B. Foster, P. Núnez, S. Aguilar, R. Valencia, and G. Villa. 2002. Beta-diversity in tropical forest trees. Science 295:666-669.
Connell, J. H., and R. O. Slatyer. 1977. Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. American Naturalist 111:1119-1144.
Cottenie, K. 2005. Integrating environmental and spatial processes in ecological community dynamics. Ecology letters 8:1175-1182.
Cottenie, K., and L. De Meester. 2003. Connectivity and cladoceran species richness in a metacommunity of shallow lakes. Freshwater Biology 48:823-832.
De Meester, L., J. Vanoverbeke, L. J. Kilsdonk, and M. C. Urban. 2016. Evolving perspectives on monopolization and priority effects. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 31:136-146.
Devictor, V., R. Julliard, and F. Jiguet. 2008. Distribution of specialist and generalist species along spatial gradients of habitat disturbance and fragmentation. Oikos 117:507-514.
Egas, M., U. Dieckmann, and M. W. Sabelis. 2004. Evolution restricts the coexistence of specialists and generalists: the role of trade-off structure. American Naturalist 163:518-531.
Eriksson, A., F. Elías-Wolff, B. Mehlig, and A. Manica. 2014. The emergence of the rescue effect from explicit within-and between-patch dynamics in a metapopulation. Proc. R. Soc. B 281:20133127.
Forbes, A. E., and J. M. Chase. 2002. The role of habitat connectivity and landscape geometry in experimental zooplankton metacommunities. Oikos 96:433-440.
Frouz, J., and P. Kindlmann. 2001. The role of sink to source re‐colonisation in the population dynamics of insects living in unstable habitats: an example of terrestrial chironomids. Oikos 93:50-58.
Futuyma, D. J., and G. Moreno. 1988. The evolution of ecological specialization. Annual Review of Ecology Systematics 19:207-233.
Geary, R. C. 1954. The contiguity ratio and statistical mapping. The incorporated statistician 5:115-146.
Gleason, H. A. 1926. The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey botanical club:7-26.
Gonzalez, A., and R. D. Holt. 2002. The inflationary effects of environmental fluctuations in source–sink systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:14872-14877.
Griffith, D. A. 2003. Spatial Autocorrelation and Spatial Filtering: Gaining Understanding Through Theory and Scientific Visualization. Springer Science & Business Media.
Hastings, A. 1980. Disturbance, coexistence, history, and competition for space. Theoretical population biology 18:363-373.
Heino, M. 1998. Noise colour, synchrony and extinctions in spatially structured populations. Oikos:368-375.
Heino, M., J. Ripa, and V. Kaitala. 2000. Extinction risk under coloured environmental noise. Ecography 23:177-184.
Helm, A., I. Hanski, and M. Pärtel. 2006. Slow response of plant species richness to habitat loss and fragmentation. Ecology letters 9:72-77.
Henriques-Silva, R., F. Boivin, V. Calcagno, M. C. Urban, and P. R. Peres-Neto. 2015. On the evolution of dispersal via heterogeneity in spatial connectivity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 282:20142879.
Hiddink, J., R. Kock, and W. Wolff. 2002. Active pelagic migrations of the bivalve Macoma balthica are dangerous. Marine Biology 140:1149-1156.
Hiddink, J., and W. Wolff. 2002. Changes in distribution and decrease in numbers during migration of the bivalve Macoma balthica. Marine Ecology Progress Series 233:117-130.
Hill, M. O. 1973. Diversity and evenness: a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology 54:427-432.
Horvath, T. G., and G. A. Lamberti. 1999. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport. Freshwater Biology 42:69-76.
Hubbell, S. P. 2001. The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (MPB-32). Princeton University Press.
Jost, L. 2007. Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta components. Ecology 88:2427-2439.
Jost, L. 2010. The relation between evenness and diversity. Diversity 2:207-232.
Karisto, P., and É. Kisdi. 2017. Evolution of dispersal under variable connectivity. Journal of theoretical biology 419:52-65.
Keefer, M., C. Peery, and M. Heinrich. 2008. Temperature‐mediated en route migration mortality and travel rates of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 17:136-145.
Kneitel, J. M., and J. M. Chase. 2004. Trade‐offs in community ecology: linking spatial scales and species coexistence. Ecology letters 7:69-80.
Kolasa, J., and B.-L. Li. 2003. Removing the confounding effect of habitat specialization reveals the stabilizing contribution of diversity to species variability. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270:S198-S201.
Kraft, N. J., P. B. Adler, O. Godoy, E. C. James, S. Fuller, and J. M. Levine. 2015. Community assembly, coexistence and the environmental filtering metaphor. Functional Ecology 29:592-599.
Krauss, J., R. Bommarco, M. Guardiola, R. K. Heikkinen, A. Helm, M. Kuussaari, R. Lindborg, E. Öckinger, M. Pärtel, and J. Pino. 2010. Habitat fragmentation causes immediate and time‐delayed biodiversity loss at different trophic levels. Ecology letters 13:597-605.
Laliberté, E., G. Zemunik, and B. L. Turner. 2014. Environmental filtering explains variation in plant diversity along resource gradients. Science 345:1602-1605.
Lande, R., S. Engen, and B.-E. Sæther. 1999. Spatial scale of population synchrony: environmental correlation versus dispersal and density regulation. American Naturalist 154:271-281.
Lebrija-Trejos, E., E. A. Pérez-García, J. A. Meave, F. Bongers, and L. Poorter. 2010. Functional traits and environmental filtering drive community assembly in a species‐rich tropical system. Ecology 91:386-398.
Legendre, P. 1993. Spatial Autocorrelation: Trouble or New Paradigm? Ecology 74:1659-1673.
Levins, R., and D. Culver. 1971. Regional coexistence of species and competition between rare species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 68:1246-1248.
Livingston, G., M. Matias, V. Calcagno, C. Barbera, M. Combe, M. A. Leibold, and N. Mouquet. 2012. Competition–colonization dynamics in experimental bacterial metacommunities. Nature communications 3:1234.
Long, Z. T., O. L. Petchey, and R. D. Holt. 2007. The Effects of Immigration and Environmental Variability on the Persistence of an Inferior Competitor. Ecology letters 10:574-585.
Loreau, M., and N. Mouquet. 1999. Immigration and the maintenance of local species diversity. American Naturalist 154:427-440.
Loreau, M., N. Mouquet, and A. Gonzalez. 2003. Biodiversity as spatial insurance in heterogeneous landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:12765-12770.
Luoto, M., S. Rekolainen, J. Aakkula, and J. Pykälä. 2003. Loss of plant species richness and habitat connectivity in grasslands associated with agricultural change in Finland. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 32:447-452.
MacArthur, R., H. Recher, and M. Cody. 1966. On the relation between habitat selection and species diversity. American Naturalist 100:319-332.
MacArthur, R. H. 1958. Population ecology of some warblers of northeastern coniferous forests. Ecology 39:599-619.
Marcon, E., and B. Hérault. 2015. entropart: An R package to measure and partition diversity. Journal of Statistical Software 67.
Marcon, E., I. Scotti, B. Hérault, V. Rossi, and G. Lang. 2014. Generalization of the partitioning of Shannon diversity. PloS one 9:e90289.
Massie, T. M., G. Weithoff, N. Kuckländer, U. Gaedke, and B. Blasius. 2015. Enhanced Moran effect by spatial variation in environmental autocorrelation. Nature communications 6:5993.
Matthews, D. P., and A. Gonzalez. 2007. The inflationary effects of environmental fluctuations ensure the persistence of sink metapopulations. Ecology 88:2848-2856.
May, R. M. 1977. Thresholds and breakpoints in ecosystems with a multiplicity of stable states. Nature 269:471.
McConaugha, J. R. 1992. Decapod larvae: dispersal, mortality, and ecology. A working hypothesis. American Zoologist 32:512-523.
McCullagh, P., and J. A. Nelder. 1989. Generalized linear models. CRC press.
Mouquet, N., and M. Loreau. 2003. Community patterns in source-sink metacommunities. American Naturalist 162:544-557.
Nordén, J., R. Penttilä, J. Siitonen, E. Tomppo, and O. Ovaskainen. 2013. Specialist species of wood‐inhabiting fungi struggle while generalists thrive in fragmented boreal forests. Journal of Ecology 101:701-712.
North, A., S. Cornell, and O. Ovaskainen. 2011. Evolutionary responses of dispersal distance to landscape structure and habitat loss. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution 65:1739-1751.
Nurmi, T., and K. Parvinen. 2011. Joint evolution of specialization and dispersal in structured metapopulations. Journal of theoretical biology 275:78-92.
Öckinger, E., O. Schweiger, T. O. Crist, D. M. Debinski, J. Krauss, M. Kuussaari, J. D. Petersen, J. Pöyry, J. Settele, and K. S. Summerville. 2010. Life‐history traits predict species responses to habitat area and isolation: a cross‐continental synthesis. Ecology letters 13:969-979.
Palmqvist, E., and P. Lundberg. 1998. Population extinctions in correlated environments. Oikos:359-367.
Pardini, R., S. M. de Souza, R. Braga-Neto, and J. P. Metzger. 2005. The role of forest structure, fragment size and corridors in maintaining small mammal abundance and diversity in an Atlantic forest landscape. Biological Conservation 124:253-266.
Pechenik, J. A. 1999. On the advantages and disadvantages of larval stages in benthic marine invertebrate life cycles. Marine Ecology Progress Series 177:269-297.
Peres-Neto, P. R., P. Legendre, S. Dray, and D. Borcard. 2006. Variation Partitioning of Species Data Matrices: Estimation and Comparison of Fractions. Ecology 87:2614-2625.
Peres-Neto, P. R., M. A. Leibold, and S. Dray. 2012. Assessing the Effects of Spatial Contingency and Environmental Filtering on Metacommunity Phylogenetics. Ecology 93:S14-S30.
Petchey, O. L., A. Gonzalez, and H. B. Wilson. 1997. Effects on population persistence: the interaction between environmental noise colour, intraspecific competition and space. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 264:1841-1847.
Pulliam, H. R. 1988. Sources, sinks, and population regulation. American Naturalist 132:652-661.
Rand, P., S. Hinch, J. Morrison, M. Foreman, M. MacNutt, J. Macdonald, M. Healey, A. Farrell, and D. Higgs. 2006. Effects of river discharge, temperature, and future climates on energetics and mortality of adult migrating Fraser River sockeye salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:655-667.
Rand, P. S., and S. G. Hinch. 1998. Swim speeds and energy use of upriver-migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): simulating metabolic power and assessing risk of energy depletion. Canadian Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Sciences 55:1832-1841.
Ravigné, V., U. Dieckmann, and I. Olivieri. 2009. Live where you thrive: joint evolution of habitat choice and local adaptation facilitates specialization and promotes diversity. The American Naturalist 174:E141-E169.
Robert, A. 2009. The effects of spatially correlated perturbations and habitat configuration on metapopulation persistence. Oikos 118:1590-1600.
Ruokolainen, L., and M. S. Fowler. 2008. Community extinction patterns in coloured environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 275:1775-1783.
Ruokolainen, L., M. S. Fowler, and E. Ranta. 2007. Extinctions in competitive communities forced by coloured environmental variation. Oikos 116:439-448.
Ruokolainen, L., A. Linden, V. Kaitala, and M. S. Fowler. 2009. Ecological and evolutionary dynamics under coloured environmental variation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24:555-563.
Schwager, M., K. Johst, and F. Jeltsch. 2006. Does red noise increase or decrease extinction risk? Single extreme events versus series of unfavorable conditions. American Naturalist 167:879-888.
Snyder, R. E. 2008. When does environmental variation most influence species coexistence? Theoretical Ecology 1:129-139.
Snyder, R. E., and P. Chesson. 2003. Local dispersal can facilitate coexistence in the presence of permanent spatial heterogeneity. Ecology letters 6:301-309.
Soininen, J. 2014. A quantitative analysis of species sorting across organisms and ecosystems. Ecology 95:3284-3292.
Soininen, J. 2016. Spatial structure in ecological communities–a quantitative analysis. Oikos 125:160-166.
Soininen, J., R. McDonald, and H. Hillebrand. 2007. The distance decay of similarity in ecological communities. Ecography 30:3-12.
Staddon, P., Z. Lindo, P. D. Crittenden, F. Gilbert, and A. Gonzalez. 2010. Connectivity, non‐random extinction and ecosystem function in experimental metacommunities. Ecology letters 13:543-552.
Sutherland, J. P. 1974. Multiple stable points in natural communities. American Naturalist 108:859-873.
Team, R. C. 2013. R: A language and environment for statistical computing.
Tischendorf, L., and L. Fahrig. 2000. How should we measure landscape connectivity? Landscape ecology 15:633-641.
Tockner, K., F. Schiemer, C. Baumgartner, G. Kum, E. Weigand, I. Zweimüller, and J. Ward. 1999. The Danube restoration project: species diversity patterns across connectivity gradients in the floodplain system. River Research Applications 15:245-258.
Urban, M. C., and L. De Meester. 2009. Community monopolization: local adaptation enhances priority effects in an evolving metacommunity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 276:4129-4138.
Van Tienderen, P. H. 1991. Evolution of generalists and specialists in spatially heterogeneous environments. Evolution 45:1317-1331.
Weiner, J., and S. Xiao. 2012. Variation in the degree of specialization can maintain local diversity in model communities. Theoretical Ecology 5:161-166.
White, J. W., A. Rassweiler, J. F. Samhouri, A. C. Stier, and C. White. 2014. Ecologists should not use statistical significance tests to interpret simulation model results. Oikos 123:385-388.
Whittaker, R. H. 1967. Gradient analysis of vegetation. Biological Reviews 42:207-264.
Wichmann, M. C., K. Johst, K. A. Moloney, C. Wissel, and F. Jeltsch. 2003. Extinction risk in periodically fluctuating environments. Ecological Modelling 167:221-231.
Wickman, J., S. Diehl, B. Blasius, C. A. Klausmeier, A. B. Ryabov, and Å. Brännström. 2017. Determining selection across heterogeneous landscapes: A perturbation-based method and its application to modeling evolution in space. American Naturalist 189:381-395.
Winne, C., and W. Hopkins. 2006. Influence of sex and reproductive condition on terrestrial and aquatic locomotor performance in the semi‐aquatic snake Seminatrix pygaea. Functional Ecology 20:1054-1061.
Yu, D. W., and H. B. Wilson. 2001. The competition-colonization trade-off is dead; long live the competition-colonization trade-off. American Naturalist 158:49-63.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top