Login | Register

Developing Superhydrophobic Copper-Graphene Nanoplatelet Coatings to Promote Dropwise Condensation Using Thermal Spray Processes

Title:

Developing Superhydrophobic Copper-Graphene Nanoplatelet Coatings to Promote Dropwise Condensation Using Thermal Spray Processes

Forati, Tahmineh (2019) Developing Superhydrophobic Copper-Graphene Nanoplatelet Coatings to Promote Dropwise Condensation Using Thermal Spray Processes. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
Forati_MASc_S2019.pdf - Accepted Version
7MB

Abstract

Water vapour condensation is frequently used as an effective means of transferring heat using dropwise condensation on non-wetting surfaces. The rate of heat transfer can be enhanced with dropwise condensation on non-wetting or hydrophobic surfaces when compared to filmwise condensation on a wetting surface. A potential method to improve dropwise condensation is the use of superhydrophobic coatings that are exceptionally water repelling. The superhydrophobicity of a surface is a result of the combination of its surface microstructure and surface chemistry. Materials with low surface energy are mostly polymeric and organic with low durability and poor thermal and chemical stability. Furthermore, these materials add thermal resistance to the coating, limiting the potential heat transfer capacity. As an alternative, developing a coating containing graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) with their hydrophobicity, high thermal conductivity and excellent mechanical properties is a promising approach to provide a hydrophobic coating for promoting dropwise condensation.
In order to develop micro-textured coatings with high water repellency and mobility, in this work, atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) techniques were used as scalable and efficient coating techniques to develop thin Cu-GNP coatings on a copper substrate. The main reason for combining copper with GNP is to protect the GNP against the elevated temperatures of the plasma and HVOF plumes. Additionally, copper can act as a carrier which transfers the GNP towards the substrate hence the adhesion and mechanical properties of this coating improve as the substrate of interest is also copper. A parametric study approach was used to optimize the APS and HVOF process parameters in order to achieve the best wettability in the copper/graphene nanoplatelets micro-textured coatings. Subsequently, to lower their surface energy, post-treatment by a stearic acid solution was performed.
The APS Cu-GNP coatings exhibit water contact angles as high as 152° and sliding angle less than10° while HVOF Cu-GNP coatings showed great water mobility (with a sliding angle less than 1°) as well as high water contact angle value of 164°. The image analyses of the APS coatings showed a lamellar structure. Additionally, with optimizing the plasma power, the desired microstructure that encourages the non-wetting surface was achieved. The HVOF coating showed more homogenous as well as denser morphology, and a hierarchical microstructure was observed. With optimizing the parameters, GNP embedded in the Cu matrix was more evident in HVOF coatings which can be attributed to the lower temperature of this process. Raman analysis further dem¬onstrates the presence of GNP in the coating while the defects in its structure increased after the thermal spray processes. Moreover, the above influences are more significant in APS compared to the HVOF Process. The best of the APS and HVOF coatings are then tested to evaluate their corrosion stability. It is shown that the HVOF Cu-GNP coating developed in this work can improve the corrosion resistance up to 89% when compared to the uncoated Cu surface. This coating can potentially promote dropwise condensation while offering enhanced corrosion stability.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Forati, Tahmineh
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Mechanical Engineering
Date:26 March 2019
Thesis Supervisor(s):Dolatabadi, Ali and Moreau, Christian and Pugh, Martin
Keywords:Superhdrophobic, Coating, Graphene
ID Code:985268
Deposited By: tahmineh forati
Deposited On:08 Jul 2019 13:15
Last Modified:08 Jul 2019 13:15

References:

[1] D. J. Preston, D. L. Mafra, N. Miljkovic, J. Kong, and E. N. Wang, “Scalable Graphene Coatings for Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer,” Nano Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 2902–2909, May 2015.
[2] G.-T. Kim, S.-J. Gim, S.-M. Cho, N. Koratkar, and I.-K. Oh, “Wetting-Transparent Graphene Films for Hydrophobic Water-Harvesting Surfaces,” Adv. Mater., vol. 26, no. 30, pp. 5166–5172, Aug. 2014.
[3] E. Mansfield, J. W. Sowards, and W. J. Crookes-goodson, “Findings and Recommendations from the NIST Workshop on Alternative Fuels and Materials: Biocorrosion,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., vol. 120, pp. 28–36, 2015.
[4] D. Attinger et al., “Surface engineering for phase change heat transfer: A review,” MRS Energy Sustain., vol. 1, p. E4, Nov. 2014.
[5] S. M. Tong Y, Bohmb S, “Graphene based materials and their composites as coatings,” Austin J Nanomed Nanotechnol, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2013.
[6] X. Chen, R. S. Patel, J. A. Weibel, and S. V. Garimella, “Coalescence-Induced Jumping of Multiple Condensate Droplets on Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Sci. Rep., vol. 6, no. 1, p. 18649, May 2016.
[7] N. Sharifi, F. Ben Ettouil, M. Mousavi, M. Pugh, C. Moreau, and A. Dolatabadi, “Superhydrophoibcity and Water Repelling Characteristics of Thermally Sprayed Coatings,” in International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition (ITSC), 2013.
[8] A. Bejan and A. D. Kraus, Heat transfer handbook. J. Wiley, 2003.
[9] J. W. Rose, “Dropwise condensation theory and experiment: A review,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A J. Power Energy, vol. 216, no. 2, pp. 115–128, Jan. 2002.
[10] N. Sharifi, M. Pugh, C. Moreau, and A. Dolatabadi, “Developing hydrophobic and superhydrophobic TiO2 coatings by plasma spraying,” Surf. Coatings Technol., vol. 289, pp. 29–36, Mar. 2016.
[11] R. Tadmor†, “Line Energy and the Relation between Advancing, Receding, and Young Contact Angles,” 2004.
[12] A. Bisetto, D. Torresin, M. K. Tiwari, D. Del Col, and D. Poulikakos, “Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces: Literature review and experimental analysis,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2014, vol. 501, no. 1.
[13] N. Sharifi, M. Pugh, C. Moreau, and A. Dolatabadi, “Developing hydrophobic and superhydrophobic TiO2coatings by plasma spraying,” Surf. Coatings Technol., vol. 289, pp. 29–36, 2016.
[14] L. Leger and J. F. Joanny, “Non-sticking drops Related content Liquid spreading,” Reports Prog. Phys., vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 2495–2532, 2005.
[15] B. Bhushan, Y. C. Jung, and K. Koch, “Micro-, nano- And hierarchical structures for superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning and low adhesion,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., vol. 367, no. 1894, pp. 1631–1672, 2009.
[16] C. Dietz, K. Rykaczewski, A. G. Fedorov, and Y. Joshi, “Visualization of droplet departure on a superhydrophobic surface and implications to heat transfer enhancement during dropwise condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 97, no. 3, p. 33104, 2010.
[17] R. Enright, N. Miljkovic, A. Al-Obeidi, C. V Thompson, and E. N. Wang, “Condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces: The role of local energy barriers and structure length scale,” Langmuir, vol. 28, no. 40, pp. 14424–14432, 2012.
[18] H. Koivuluoto, C. Stenroos, M. Kylmälahti, M. Apostol, J. Kiilakoski, and P. Vuoristo, “Anti-icing Behavior of Thermally Sprayed Polymer Coatings,” J. Therm. Spray Technol., vol. 26, no. 1–2, pp. 150–160, 2017.
[19] B. Bhushan, Y. C. Jung, and K. Koch, “Self-cleaning efficiency of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 3240–3248, 2009.
[20] S. S. Latthe et al., “A mechanically bendable superhydrophobic steel surface with self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant properties,” J. Mater. Chem. A, vol. 3, no. 27, pp. 14263–14271, 2015.
[21] M. Nosonovsky and B. Bhushan, “Patterned Nonadhesive surfaces: Superhydrophobicity and wetting regime transitions,” Langmuir, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1525–1533, 2008.
[22] R. C. Aylagas, “Visualization of condensation over micro-structured surfaces,” no. July, 2016.
[23] M. Nosonovsky and B. Bhushan, “Patterned Nonadhesive surfaces: Superhydrophobicity and wetting regime transitions,” Langmuir, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1525–1533, 2008.
[24] P. Roach, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Progess in superhydrophobic surface development,” Soft Matter, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 224–240, Jan. 2008.
[25] N. Sharifi, F. Ben Ettouil, C. Moreau, A. Dolatabadi, and M. Pugh, “Engineering surface texture and hierarchical morphology of suspension plasma sprayed TiO2coatings to control wetting behavior and superhydrophobic properties,” Surf. Coatings Technol., vol. 329, no. May, pp. 139–148, 2017.
[26] K. S. Novoselov et al., “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Kluwer, 2004.
[27] V. Singh, D. Joung, L. Zhai, S. Das, S. I. Khondaker, and S. Seal, “Graphene based materials: Past, present and future,” vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 1178–1271, 2011.
[28] X. Gao et al., “Mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of graphene reinforced copper matrix composites,” Powder Technol., vol. 301, pp. 601–607, 2016.
[29] D. Zhang and Z. Zhan, “Strengthening effect of graphene derivatives in copper matrix composites,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 654, pp. 226–233, Jan. 2016.
[30] W. Li, D. Li, Q. Fu, and C. Pan, “Conductive enhancement of copper/graphene composites based on high-quality graphene,” RSC Adv., vol. 5, no. 98, pp. 80428–80433, 2015.
[31] W. Li, D. Li, Q. Fu, and C. Pan, “Conductive enhancement of copper/graphene composites based on high-quality graphene,” RSC Adv., vol. 5, no. 98, pp. 80428–80433, Sep. 2015.
[32] S. Kumari, A. Panigrahi, S. K. Singh, and S. K. Pradhan, “Enhanced corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of nanostructured graphene-polymer composite coating on copper by electrophoretic deposition,” J. Coatings Technol. Res., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 583–592, 2018.
[33] D. Berman, A. Erdemir, and A. V. Sumant, “Few layer graphene to reduce wear and friction on sliding steel surfaces,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 54, pp. 454–459, Apr. 2013.
[34] L. B. Boinovich and A. M. Emelyanenko, “Hydrophobic materials and coatings: principles of design, properties and applications,” Russ. Chem. Rev., vol. 77, no. 7, pp. 583–600, 2008.
[35] O. Leenaerts, B. Partoens, and F. M. Peeters, “Water on graphene: Hydrophobicity and dipole moment using density functional theory,” Phys. Rev. B - Condens. Matter Mater. Phys., vol. 79, no. 23, pp. 1–5, 2009.
[36] X. Zhang, S. Wan, J. Pu, L. Wang, and X. Liu, “Highly hydrophobic and adhesive performance of graphene films,” J. Mater. Chem., vol. 21, no. 33, pp. 12251–12258, 2011.
[37] A. Akaishi, T. Yonemaru, and J. Nakamura, “Formation of Water Layers on Graphene Surfaces,” ACS Omega, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 2184–2190, 2017.
[38] Z. Li et al., “Effect of airborne contaminants on the wettability of supported graphene and graphite,” Nat. Mater., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 925–931, Oct. 2013.
[39] C. Te Hsieh and W. Y. Chen, “Water/oil repellency and work of adhesion of liquid droplets on graphene oxide and graphene surfaces,” Surf. Coatings Technol., vol. 205, no. 19, pp. 4554–4561, 2011.
[40] T. Forati, M. Atai, A. M. Rashidi, M. Imani, and A. Behnamghader, “Physical and mechanical properties of graphene oxide/polyethersulfone nanocomposites,” Polym. Adv. Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 322–328, Mar. 2014.
[41] T. Wang, Y. Zheng, A.-R. O. Raji, Y. Li, W. K. A. Sikkema, and J. M. Tour, “Passive Anti-Icing and Active Deicing Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 8, no. 22, pp. 14169–14173, Jun. 2016.
[42] M. J. Nine, M. A. Cole, L. Johnson, D. N. H. Tran, and D. Losic, “Robust Superhydrophobic Graphene-Based Composite Coatings with Self-Cleaning and Corrosion Barrier Properties,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 7, no. 51, pp. 28482–28493, Dec. 2015.
[43] D. D. Nguyen, N.-H. Tai, S.-B. Lee, and W.-S. Kuo, “Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties of graphene-based sponges fabricated using a facile dip coating method,” Energy Environ. Sci., vol. 5, no. 7, p. 7908, Jun. 2012.
[44] X. Zhang, D. Liu, Y. Ma, J. Nie, and G. Sui, “Super-hydrophobic graphene coated polyurethane (GN@PU) sponge with great oil-water separation performance,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 422, pp. 116–124, 2017.
[45] R. K. Singh Raman et al., “Protecting copper from electrochemical degradation by graphene coating,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 4040–4045, Sep. 2012.
[46] A. S. Sai Pavan and S. R. Ramanan, “A study on corrosion resistant graphene films on low alloy steel,” Appl. Nanosci., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1175–1181, 2016.
[47] L. E. Scriven, “Physics and Applications of DIP Coating and Spin Coating,” MRS Proc., vol. 121, p. 717, Jan. 1988.
[48] M. Manca, A. Cannavale, L. De Marco, A. S. Aricò, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Durable superhydrophobic and antireflective surfaces by trimethylsilanized silica nanoparticles-based sol-gel processing,” Langmuir, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 6357–6362, 2009.
[49] K. Choy, “Chemical vapour deposition of coatings,” Prog. Mater. Sci., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 57–170, 2003.
[50] A. Hozumi and O. Takai, “Preparation of ultra water-repellent films by microwave plasma-enhanced CVD,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 303, no. 1–2, pp. 222–225, 1997.
[51] L. Wang, S. Guo, X. Hu, and S. Dong, “Facile electrochemical approach to fabricate hierarchical flowerlike gold microstructures: Electrodeposited superhydrophobic surface,” Electrochem. commun., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 95–99, 2008.
[52] V. H. Pham et al., “Fast and simple fabrication of a large transparent chemically-converted graphene film by spray-coating,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1945–1951, 2010.
[53] J.R. Davis, “Handbook of Thermal Spray Technology - Google Books,” ASM International, 2004. [Online]. Available: https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=S0PryYc9T70C&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=J.R.+Davis,+Handbook+of+thermal+spray+technology,+ASM+international2004.&ots=m70YXVYsCp&sig=6Dlqqau1h47YJQQl5h2lvtgkXAw#v=onepage&q&f=false. [Accessed: 10-Oct-2018].
[54] P. Fauchais, “Understanding plasma spraying,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 37, no. 9. pp. 1–17, 2004.
[55] Thermal Spray Society, “Thermal Spray Technology White Paper Prepared by the Thermal Spray Society Affiliate of ASM International Mission The Value of Thermal Spray Technology What is Thermal Spray ? How It Works,” ASM Handbood, no. ASM Int., pp. 1–9.
[56] E. Pfender, “Fundamental studies associated with the plasma spray process,” Surf. Coatings Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 1988.
[57] P. Fauchais, M. Vardelle, and A. Vardelle, “Reliability of plasma-sprayed coatings: Monitoring the plasma spray process and improving the quality of coatings,” J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., vol. 46, no. 22, pp. 1–17, 2013.
[58] M. Oksa, E. Turunen, T. Suhonen, T. Varis, and S.-P. Hannula, “Optimization and Characterization of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Sprayed Coatings: Techniques, Materials, and Applications,” Coatings, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 17–52, 2011.
[59] M. Salmanzadeh, M. Jalali Azizpour, and H. Mohammadi Majd, “Evaluation of the Effect of Spray Distance on Fracture Toughness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings,” J. Appl. Sci., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 709–714, 2015.
[60] Y. Liu, Z. Dang, Y. Wang, J. Huang, and H. Li, “Hydroxyapatite/graphene-nanosheet composite coatings deposited by vacuum cold spraying for biomedical applications: Inherited nanostructures and enhanced properties,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 67, pp. 250–259, 2014.
[61] D. Ward et al., “Functional NiAl-graphene oxide composite as a model coating for aerospace component repair,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 105, pp. 529–543, Aug. 2016.
[62] H. Li et al., “Microstructure and wear behavior of graphene nanosheets-reinforced zirconia coating,” Ceram. Int., vol. 40, no. 8 PART B, pp. 12821–12829, 2014.
[63] J. W. Murray, G. A. Rance, F. Xu, and T. Hussain, “Alumina-graphene nanocomposite coatings fabricated by suspension high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying for ultra-low-wear,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1819–1828, Apr. 2017.
[64] Y. Xie, H. Li, C. Zhang, X. Gu, X. Zheng, and L. Huang, “Graphene-reinforced calcium silicate coatings for load-bearing implants,” Biomed. Mater., vol. 9, no. 2, p. 025009, Feb. 2014.
[65] Y. Xie, H. Li, C. Ding, X. Zheng, and K. Li, “Effects of graphene plates’ adoption on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of calcium silicate coating,” Int. J. Nanomedicine, vol. 10, pp. 3855–3863, Jun. 2015.
[66] C. F. Glover, C. A. J. Richards, G. Williams, and H. N. McMurray, “Evaluation of multi-layered graphene nano-platelet composite coatings for corrosion control part II – Cathodic delamination kinetics,” Corros. Sci., vol. 136, pp. 304–310, May 2018.
[67] S. Dardona, J. Hoey, Y. She, and W. R. Schmidt, “Direct write of copper-graphene composite using micro-cold spray,” AIP Adv., vol. 6, no. 8, p. 085013, Aug. 2016.
[68] A. C. Ferrari, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: Disorder, electron–phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects,” Solid State Commun., vol. 143, no. 1–2, pp. 47–57, Jul. 2007.
[69] D. Ward, “Graphene Oxide Reinforcement in Plasma Sprayed Nickel-5%Aluminum Coatings,” 2014.
[70] A. F. Stalder, T. Melchior, M. Müller, D. Sage, T. Blu, and M. Unser, “Low-bond axisymmetric drop shape analysis for surface tension and contact angle measurements of sessile drops,” Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp., vol. 364, no. 1–3, pp. 72–81, 2010.
[71] P. R. Waghmare and S. K. Mitra, “Contact Angle Hysteresis of Microbead Suspensions,” Langmuir, vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 17082–17089, Nov. 2010.
[72] Y. Wan, M. Chen, W. Liu, X. X. Shen, Y. Min, and Q. Xu, “The research on preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces of pure copper by hydrothermal method and its corrosion resistance,” Electrochim. Acta, vol. 270, pp. 310–318, Apr. 2018.
[73] L. Wang, H. Choi, J. M. Myoung, and W. Lee, “Mechanical alloying of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and aluminium powders for the preparation of carbon/metal composites,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 47, no. 15, pp. 3427–3433, Dec. 2009.
[74] S. J. Han, H. Il Lee, H. M. Jeong, B. K. Kim, A. V Raghu, and K. R. Reddy, “Graphene modified lipophilically by stearic acid and its composite with low density polyethylene,” J. Macromol. Sci. Part B Phys., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 1193–1204, 2014.
[75] R. Abbas, N. Elkhoshkhany, A. Hefnawy, S. Ebrahim, and A. Rahal, “High Stability Performance of Superhydrophobic Modified Fluorinated Graphene Films on Copper Alloy Substrates,” Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 2017, pp. 1–8, Feb. 2017.
[76] S. Vignesh, K. Shanmugam, V. Balasubramanian, and K. Sridhar, “Identifying the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain minimum porosity and maximum hardness in iron based amorphous metallic coatings,” Def. Technol., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 101–110, Apr. 2017.
[77] H. Lee, S. J. Han, R. Chidambaram Seshadri, and S. Sampath, “Thermoelectric properties of in-situ plasma spray synthesized sub-stoichiometry TiO2-x,” Sci. Rep., vol. 6, no. 1, p. 36581, Dec. 2016.
[78] K. Kang, H. Park, J. Kim, and C. Lee, “Role of spray processes on microstructural evolution, and physical and mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced cu composite coatings,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 356, pp. 1039–1051, Nov. 2015.
[79] S. Kuroda, K. Isoyama, J. Kawakita, S. Kuroda, and H. Yumoto, “Key Factors for Dense Copper Coating by HVOF Spraying The development of new anti-corrosion coatings for AZ-91E magnesium alloy used for aircraft engine and gear components View project Key Factors for Dense Copper Coating by HVOF Spraying,” in ASM International, 2003, pp. 755–762.
[80] P. Fauchais, J. R. Heberlein, and M. Boulos, “Fundamentals of Combustion and Thermal Plasma,” in Thermal Spray Fundamentals, Boston, MA: Springer US, 2014, pp. 73–112.
[81] F. Gärtner, T. Stoltenhoff, J. Voyer, H. Kreye, S. Riekehr, and M. Koçak, “Mechanical properties of cold-sprayed and thermally sprayed copper coatings,” Surf. Coatings Technol., vol. 200, no. 24, pp. 6770–6782, Apr. 2006.
[82] M. S. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, and R. Saito, “Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 3. pp. 751–758, 2010.
[83] H. Yue et al., “Effect of ball-milling and graphene contents on the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of graphene nanosheets reinforced copper matrix composites,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 691, pp. 755–762, Jan. 2017.
[84] K. Chu and C. Jia, “Enhanced strength in bulk graphene-copper composites,” Phys. status solidi, vol. 211, no. 1, pp. 184–190, Jan. 2014.
[85] V. Mišković-Stanković, I. Jevremović, I. Jung, and K. Rhee, “Electrochemical study of corrosion behavior of graphene coatings on copper and aluminum in a chloride solution,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 75, pp. 335–344, Aug. 2014.
[86] S. Kumari, A. Panigrahi, S. K. Singh, and S. K. Pradhan, “Enhanced corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of nanostructured graphene-polymer composite coating on copper by electrophoretic deposition,” J. Coatings Technol. Res., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 583–592, 2018.
[87] D. Prasai, J. C. Tuberquia, R. R. Harl, G. K. Jennings, and K. I. Bolotin, “Graphene: Corrosion-inhibiting coating,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1102–1108, 2012.
[88] M. A. Zavareh, E. Doustmohammadi, A. A. D. . Sarhan, R. Karimzadeh, P. Moozarm Nia, and R. S. Al/Kulpid Singh, “Comparative study on the corrosion and wear behavior of plasma-sprayed vs. high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed Al8Si20BN ceramic coatings,” Ceram. Int., vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 12180–12193, Aug. 2018.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top