Farag, Abdel Alim, Kamal
(2012)
*Cryptanalysis and Secure Implementation of Modern Cryptographic Algorithms.*
PhD thesis, Concordia University.

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## Abstract

Cryptanalytic attacks can be divided into two classes: pure mathematical attacks and Side Channel Attacks (SCAs). Pure mathematical attacks are traditional cryptanalytic techniques that rely on known or chosen input-output pairs of the cryptographic function and exploit the inner structure of the cipher to reveal the secret key information. On the other hand, in SCAs, it is assumed that attackers have some access to the cryptographic device and can gain some information from its physical implementation.

Cold-boot attack is a SCA which exploits the data remanence property of Random Access Memory (RAM) to retrieve its content which remains readable shortly after its power has been removed. Fault analysis is another example of SCAs in which the attacker is assumed to be able to induce faults in the cryptographic device and observe the faulty output. Then, by careful inspection of faulty outputs, the attacker recovers the secret information, such as secret inner state or secret key. Scan-based Design-For-Test (DFT) is a widely deployed technique for testing hardware chips. Scan-based SCAs exploit the information obtained by analyzing the scanned data in order to retrieve secret information from cryptographic hardware devices that are designed with this testability feature.

In the first part of this work, we investigate the use of an off-the-shelf SAT solver, CryptoMinSat, to improve the key recovery of the Advance Encryption Standard (AES-128) key schedules from its corresponding decayed memory images which can be obtained using cold-boot attacks.

We also present a fault analysis on both NTRUEncrypt and NTRUSign cryptosystems. For this specific original instantiation of the NTRU encryption system with parameters $(N,p,q)$, our attack succeeds with probability $\approx 1-\frac{1}{p}$ and when the number of faulted coefficients is upper bounded by $t$, it requires $O((pN)^t)$ polynomial inversions in $\mathbb Z/p\mathbb Z[x]/(x^{N}-1)$. We also investigate several techniques to strengthen hardware implementations of NTRUEncrypt against this class of attacks. For NTRUSign with parameters ($N$, $q=p^l$, $\mathcal{B}$, \emph{standard}, $\mathcal{N}$), when the attacker is able to skip the norm-bound signature checking step, our attack needs one fault to succeed with probability $\approx 1-\frac{1}{p}$ and requires $O((qN)^t)$ steps when the number of faulted polynomial coefficients is upper bounded by $t$. The attack is also applicable to NTRUSign utilizing the \emph{transpose} NTRU lattice but it requires double the number of fault injections. Different countermeasures against the proposed attack are also investigated.

Furthermore, we present a scan-based SCA on NTRUEncrypt hardware implementations that employ scan-based DFT techniques. Our attack determines the scan chain structure of the polynomial multiplication circuits used in the decryption algorithm which allows the cryptanalyst to efficiently retrieve the secret key.

Several key agreement schemes based on matrices were recently proposed. For example, \'{A}lvarez \emph{et al.} proposed a scheme in which the secret key is obtained by multiplying powers of block upper triangular matrices whose elements are defined over $\mathbb{Z}_p$. Climent \emph{et al.} identified the elements of the endomorphisms ring $End(\mathbb{Z}_p \times \mathbb{Z}_{p^2})$ with elements in a set, $E_p$, of matrices of size $2\times 2$, whose elements in the first row belong to $\mathbb{Z}_{p}$ and the elements in the second row belong to $\mathbb{Z}_{p^2}$. Keith Salvin presented a key exchange protocol using matrices in the general linear group, $GL(r,\mathbb{Z}_n)$, where $n$ is the product of two distinct large primes. The system is fully specified in the US patent number 7346162 issued in 2008. In the second part of this work, we present mathematical cryptanalytic attacks against these three schemes and show that they can be easily broken for all practical choices of their security parameters.

Divisions: | Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Electrical and Computer Engineering |
---|---|

Item Type: | Thesis (PhD) |

Authors: | Farag, Abdel Alim, Kamal |

Institution: | Concordia University |

Degree Name: | Ph. D. |

Program: | Electrical and Computer Engineering |

Date: | July 2012 |

Thesis Supervisor(s): | Youssef, Amr |

Keywords: | Side channel attacks, Cryptography, Cryptanalaysis, Key exchange schemes, Cold-boot attack, Fault attacks, Scan-based attack, Hardware implementation, CUDA framework, Graphic processing units (GPU). |

ID Code: | 974675 |

Deposited By: | ABDEL ALIM KAMA FARAG |

Deposited On: | 30 Oct 2012 18:52 |

Last Modified: | 18 Jan 2018 17:38 |

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