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Experimental Investigation on the Failure Mechanism for Critical Tube Diameter Phenomenon of Gaseous Detonations


Experimental Investigation on the Failure Mechanism for Critical Tube Diameter Phenomenon of Gaseous Detonations

Mehrjoo, Navid (2014) Experimental Investigation on the Failure Mechanism for Critical Tube Diameter Phenomenon of Gaseous Detonations. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

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In this thesis, an experimental investigation is carried out to study the mechanism governing the successful transmission or failure on the critical tube diameter phenomenon when a fully developed, self-sustained detonation propagating in the confined tube transmits into an open space. The result of this study contributes to a better understanding of fundamental physical processes on the initiation, propagation and failure of the detonation.
To demonstrate the dependence of critical tube diameter dc on combustion chemistry, two kinds of explosive mixtures are studied. The first is typical for common hydrocarbon mixtures characterized by irregular cellular structures and turbulent reactions zones. The other is referred to as stable mixtures particularly with combustibles highly-diluted with argon. A parametric study is carried out to measure critical tube diameters using stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen diluted with varying amount of argon to obtain these two types of mixtures. The present study validates that the well-accepted universal relation dc = 13λ holds for 0% - 30% argon diluted mixtures and breaks down when argon dilution increases up to 40%. Cell size measurement also indicates that the cellular detonation front starts to become more regular (or stable) when the argon dilution reaches above 40 - 50%. These results hence support that the physical process of critical tube diameter phenomenon is related to the stability nature of the detonation front and failure mechanism.
Failure mechanisms for the critical tube diameter phenomenon were previously postulated in the literature for the two kinds of mixtures. For unstable mixtures, the failure is based on the inability to form explosion centers in the failure wave when it has penetrated to the charge axis.
For stable mixtures, the failure is caused by excessive curvature of the entire detonation front when the corner expansion waves have distributed the curvature over the diverging wave surface.
To discriminate between the two aforementioned modes of failure and clarify the importance of instability, two series of experiments are conducted: one by generating artificially small flow instability using small obstacles with different blockage ratios and the other by damping
transverse instability using porous media to see how the critical tube diameter phenomenon responds to these perturbations. Results show that both generation and suppression of flow instability leads to a significant change in the critical condition for successful transmission. The critical pressure obtained in unstable mixtures is found lower with flow perturbation by the
obstacles but adversely increases with the damping of instability using porous walled tube; while no noticeable effect could be observed in stable, argon-diluted mixtures.
The general implications of the present study are that in common unstable mixtures, instability is essential for the critical tube diameter problem and more generally, for the initiation and propagation of detonation, providing an efficient mechanism of gas ignition. For only a very special class of stable mixtures, the propagation of the detonation wave relies solely on the global coupling between the reaction front and the shock and instabilities only play a minor role on the dynamics of the detonation.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Mehrjoo, Navid
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Mechanical Engineering
Date:10 December 2014
Thesis Supervisor(s):Ng, Hoi Dick
ID Code:979603
Deposited On:16 Jul 2015 15:31
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:49
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