Login | Register

Influence of Saturation and Geometry on Surface Electrical Resistivity Measurements


Influence of Saturation and Geometry on Surface Electrical Resistivity Measurements

Sanchez Marquez, Jose Miguel (2015) Influence of Saturation and Geometry on Surface Electrical Resistivity Measurements. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Sanchez_M.A.Sc_F2015.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Sanchez_M.A.Sc_F2015.pdf - Accepted Version


Non-destructive tests are the future for early concrete deterioration detection. The interest in surface electrical resistivity as for the quality control of concrete structures has increased in the last several years. A standardized laboratory method has recently been adopted as AASHTO TP 95-11 and an ASTM method is under consideration. Both these methods measure surface resistance by a Wenner four-electrode probe device, in which the electrodes are equally spaced on the surface of saturated concrete elements. Currently, the standardized method is restricted to laboratory specimens. For this method to be applicable to field measurements requires first to identify how much time a concrete element needs to reach saturation and how reliable resistivity values are under different saturation stages. Phase one of this research investigated the duration of saturation required to achieve stable resistivity for 20 mixture designs at a range of ages. It was generally determined that resistivity varies until 24 hours. Past that duration, some increases in surface resistivity were observed and attributed to further hydration. In the field, concrete elements are generally large and the assumptions of infinite geometry hold. Lab specimens, on the other hand, have a constricted flow of electrical current. In Phase two, the influences of geometry and saturation fluid were examined. It was found that using published geometrical conversion factors did not result in equivalent surface resistivity between cylinders and small slabs or for cylinders of different sizes, suggesting more work required in this area. The use of tap water was investigated as it would be more available on site; it was found that at 28 days, there were minimal differences between tap water and limewater. At later ages, limewater generally resulted in higher resistivity. Phase Three investigated published temperature corrections to adjust site measured resistivity to standard temperature. Regardless of the correction, significant difference was observed between the site and laboratory measurements. Lastly in Phase four, two alternate techniques were tested for potential on site use. It was found that neither resulted in any significant changes in resistivity.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Sanchez Marquez, Jose Miguel
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Building Engineering
Date:8 June 2015
Thesis Supervisor(s):Nokken, Michelle and Sanchez Marquez, Jose Miguel
Keywords:None destrucitve test, NDT, Concrete, surface electrical resistivity, durability, fly ash, Slag cement,
ID Code:980090
Deposited On:02 Nov 2015 16:01
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:50


1. Andrade, C., and Alonso, C., (1996) “Corrosion Rate Monitoring in the Laboratory and On-site”, Construction & Building Materials, V.10. pp. 315 – 328.

2. ASP Construction (2003) “Health and Safety on Construction Sites Course” Student’s Manual, 5th Edition, Revised Edition 2003.

3. AASHTO, TP 95-11 (2011) “Standard Method of Test for Surface Resistivity Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration.” AASHTO Provisional Standards, 2011 Edition.

4. AASHTO T 277-05 (2007) “Standard Method of Test for Electrical Indication of Concrete's Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration” AASHTO, 2007 Edition.

5. ASTM C1611 / C1611M – 14 (2014) “Standard Test Method for Slump Flow of Self-Consolidating Concrete”. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). Book of Standards Volume: 04.02

6. ASTM C39 / C39M - 14a (2014) “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens”. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). Book of Standards Volume: 04.02

7. ASTM Test C 666, (2008) “Mechanical Properties and Freezing and Thawing Resistance of Non-Air-Entrained, Air-Entrained, and Air-Entrained Superplasticized Concrete”. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM).

8. ASTM C1202-12, (2012) “Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration”, American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). EDT 2012.

9. Baker, R.F.M., (1985) “Illustration of Permeability and Porosity. Diffusion within and into Concrete”, Paper presented at 13th Annual Convention of the Institute of Concrete Technology, University of Loughborough. Slough Institute of Concrete Technology. pp.21.

10. Barneyback, S., and S. Diamond (1981) “Expression and Analysis of Pore Fluids from Hardened Cement Pastes and Mortars”. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 279-285.

11. Bassuoni, M. T., Nehdi M. L., and Greenough T. R. (2006) “Enhancing the Reliability of Evaluating Chloride Ingress in Concrete Using the ASTM C1202 Rapid Chloride Penetrability Test”, Journal of ASTM International, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 1-13.

12. Belviso, C.; Pascucci, S.; Cavalcante, F.; Palombo, F.; Pignatti, F.; Simoniello, T; and Fiore, Saverio (2011) “Multi-Technique Application for Waste Material Detection and Soil Remediation Strategies: The Red Mud Dust and Fly Ash Case Studies, Soil Contamination”, ISBN: 978-953-307-647-8, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/24886. <http://www.intechopen.com/books/soil-contamination/multi-technique-application-for-waste-material-detection-and-soil-remediation-strategies-the-red-mud>, accessed 16 November 2014.

13. Bentz, D. A. (2007) “Virtual Rapid Chloride Permeability Test”. Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 29, No.10, pp. 723 – 731.

14. Bockris, J.O. and Reddy, A.K (2002) “Modern Electrochemestry 1: Ionics secod edition, Plenum Press, New York, 2002. pp.769.

15. Bryant, W. J., Weyers, E. R., M. de la Garza, J. (2009) “In – Place Resistivity of Bridge Deck Concrete Mixtures,” ACI Materials Journal, March – April, Vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 114 -122.

16. Castro, J., Spragg, R., and Weiss, J. (2012) “Water Absorption and Electrical Conductivity for Internally Cured Mortars with a W/C between 0.30 and 0.45” .Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 2. pp. 223–231.

17. Chini A. R., Muszynski L. C., and Hicks J., (2003) “Determination of Acceptance Permeability Characteristics for Performance-Related Specifications for Portland Cement Concrete”, Final report submitted to FDOT (MASc. Thesis), University of Florida, Department of Civil Engineering.

18. Chun-Tao Chen, Jiang-Jhy Chang, Wei-chung Yeih. (2014) “The effects of specimen parameters on the resistivity of concrete” Journal of Construction and Building Materials 71- Elsevier Ltd (September - 2014). Vol, 71, pp. 35-43.

19. DeSouza, Savio John, (1996) “Test Methods for the Evaluation of the Durability of Covercrete” M.A.Sc. Thesis University of Toronto, Department of Civil Engineering. pp. 88.

20. Di Bella, C., C. Villani, N. Phares, R. Hausheer, and J.Weiss (2012) “Chloride Transport and Service Life in Internally Cured Concrete”. Presented at the Structures Congress 2012, Chicago.

21. Dullien, F. (1992) “Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Structure”. Academic Press, San Diego.

22. Elkey, W. and Sellevold, E.J. (1995) “Electrical Resistivity of Concrete Norwegian Public Roads Administration Publication, 1995. 33 pp.

23. Flower, DJM; Sanjayan JG. (2007) “Green House Gas Emissions due to Concrete Manufacture”. Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. Int J LCA 12 (5). pp. 282–288.

24. Gowers, K.R. and Millard, S.G, (1999) “Measurement of Concrete Resistivity for Assessment of Corrosion Severity of Steel Using Wenner Technique” ACI Materials Journal, Technical paper, September - October 1999, Vol. 96, No. 5, pp. 536-541.

25. Heubeck, Christoph (2004) “Packing, Porosity, and Permeability lecture for the Earth History”. Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften Freie Universität Berlin. pp15.

26. Hooton, R. Doug. (1989) “What is needed in a Permeability Test for Evaluation of Concrete Quality”, Materials Research Society 1989, Vol.137, pp.141-149.

27. Hornbostel, K., Larsen, C.K., and Geiker, M.R. (2013) “Relationship between Concrete Resistivity and Corrosion Rate: A literature Review”, Cement and Concrete Composites, V.39. pp. 60-72.

28. Kessler, R.J.; Powers, R.G.; Paredes, M.A.; (2005) “Resistivity Measurements of Water Saturated Concrete as an Indicator of Permeability,” Corrosion 2005, April 3-7 2005. Paper 05621, pp. 1-10.

29. Kessler, R.J.; Powers, R.G.; Vivas, E.; Paredes, M.A.; and Virmani, P., (2008) “Surface Resistivity as an Indicator of Concrete Chloride Penetration Resistance,” Concrete Bridge Conference, May 4-7, St. Louis, pp. 1 -17.

30. Kosmatka, Steven H.; Kerkhoff, Beatrix; Panarese, William C.; MacLeod, Norman F.; and McGrath Richard J., (2002) “Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures”, EB101, 7th Editio, Cement Association of Canada, Otawa, Ontario. pp, 368.

31. Kreijger, P.C; (1984) “The Skin of Concrete – Composition and Properties”, Matériux et Constructions. Vol.17, No. 100, pp. 275-283.

32. Larsen, C.K; Sellevold, E.J; Askeland, F; Østvik, J.M and Vennesland, Ø, (2007a) “Electrical Resistivity of Concrete. Part II: Influence of Moisture Content and Temperature”. Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Technology Department Report No. 2482, pp. 16-24.

33. Larsen, C.K; Sellevold, E.J; Østvik, J-M.; and Vennesland Ø, (2007b) “Electrical Resistivity of Concrete. Part III: Long Term Field Measurements on Concrete Elements in the Tidal Zone”. Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Technology Department Report No. 2482, pp. 25-38.

34. Lataste, J. F; Breysse, D and Frappa, M, (2003) “ Electrical Resistivity Measurement applied to Cracking Assessment on Reinforced concrete Structures in Civil Engineering” NDT & E International, Vol. 36, No. 06, pp. 383-394.

35. Liu, Yanbo and Presuel-Moreno , (2014) “ Normalization of Temperature Effect on Concrete Resistivity by Method Using Arrhenius Law” American Concrete Institute (ACI) Materials Journal. Title No. 11-M39. ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2014, pp. 433-442.

36. Lippiatt, B., and S. Ahmad, (2014) “Measuring the Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Performance of Concrete: The BEES Approach”. International Workshop on Sustainable Development and Concrete Technology, Beijing.

37. Lopez W. and Gonzalez J. A. (1993), “Influence of the Degree of Pore Saturation on the Resistivity of Concrete and the Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement”. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 368-376.

38. McCarter W. J., Starrs G., Kandasami S., Jones R., and Chrisp T.M., (2009) “ Electrode Configuration for Resistivity Measurements on Concrete”, ACI Materials Journal, Vol.106, No. 3, pp. 258-264.

39. McCarter, W. J. (1996) “Monitoring the Influence of Water and Ionic Ingress on Cover-Zone Concrete Subjected to Repeated Absorption”, Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp.55-63.

40. Millard S.G., Harrison J.A., Edwards A.J. (1989) “Measurement of the electrical resistivity of reinforced concrete structures for the assessment of corrosion risk”. Brit J NDT 1989; 31(11). pp. 617–621.

41. Millard S. G. and Gowers K. R., (1991) “The Influence of Surface Layers upon the Measurement of Concrete Resistivity, Durability of Concrete”, Second International Conference, ACI SP-126, Montreal, Canada, pp. 1197-1220.

42. Morris W., Moreno E. I., and Sagues A. A., (1996) “Practical Evaluation of Resistivity of Concrete in Test Cylinders Using A Wenner Array Probe, Cement and Concrete Research”, Vol. 26, No. 12, pp. 1779-1787.

43. Monfore, G. E. (1968), “ The Electrical Resistivity of Concrete, Journal of the PCA Research Development Laboratories”, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 35-48.

44. Montgomery, T., Jiang L., Sherman M. R., and Schlagel D. (2013) “Tackling Freezing-and-Thawing Deterioration of Historic Stadia. A 5-year rehabilitation of the Notre Dame Old Bowl Football Stadium”. Concrete International Magazine. Vol, 35, NO. 4 pp.38 – 44.

45. Neville, A.M. and Brooks, J.J. (1987), Concrete Technology, Longman, Harlow.

46. Nokken, M. R. and Hooton, R. D., (2006) “Electrical Conductivity as a Prequalification and Quality Control,” Concrete International, Vol. 28, No. 10, 2006, pp. 61-66.

47. Polder, R.B. and Larbi, J.A. (1995) “Investigation of Concrete Exposed to North Sea Water Submersion for 16 Years”. HERON 40, pp. 31-56.

48. Polder, R.B, Andrade, C., Elsener, C., Vennesland, Ø. Gulikers, J., Weidert, R., Raupach, M. (2000) “Test methods for onsite measurement of resistivity of concrete”. RILEM TC-154 -EMC: Electrochemical Techniques for Measuring Metallic Corrosion. Materials and Structures/Mat6riaux et Constructions, Vol. 33, December 2000, pp. 603-611.

49. Polder, R.B. (2001) "Test Methods For On Site Measurement of Resistivity of Concrete—A RILEM TC-154 Technical Recommendation". Construction and Building Materials Vol. 15. No. 2, pp. 125-131.

50. Polder, R.B. and de Rooij, M.R. (2005) “Durability of Marine Concrete Structures – Field Investigations and Modelling”. HERON 50, pp. 133-143

51. Powers, T.C., (1960). “Chemistry of Cement Proceedings”, 4th International Symposium, Washington DC, National Bureau of Standards, Monograph 43, US Deparment of Commerce, Washington DC Paper V-1 (192), pp. 577-613.

52. Powers, T.C., Copeland, L.E., Mann, H.M., (1959) “Capillary continuity or discontinuity in cement pastes”. Journal of the PCA Research and Development Laboratories. 1(2): p. 38-48.

53. Presuel-Moreno, Francisco; Suares, Andres; Liu, Yanbo, (2010) “Characterization of New and Old Concrete Structures Using Surface Resistivity Measurements,” Final Report. Florida Department of Transportation (Contract No. BD546, RPWO #08).

54. Presuel-Moreno, Francisco; Liu, Yanbo, (2012) “Temperature Effect on Electrical Resistivity Measurements on Mature Saturated Concrete” Nace International Conference & Expo Corrosion 2012, (NACE-2012-1732) pp. 5678-5696.

55. Rađenović, A.; Malina, J.; and Sofilić T. (2013) “Characterization of Ladle Furnace Slag from Carbon Steel Production as a Potential Adsorbent”, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 198240. pp 6.

56. Proceq SA manual (2013) “Resipod Resistivity Mete”. Code 810 381 01E V.06 (2013) Proceq SA, Switzerland, <http://www.proceq.com/non-destructive-test-equipment/concrete-testing/moisture-corrosion-analysis/resipod.html >, accessed 21 January 2015.

57. Rupnow, Tyson D; and Icenogle, Patrick. (2011) “Evaluation of Surface Resistivity Measurements as an Alternative to the Rapid Chloride Permeability Test for Quality Assurance and Acceptance,” Final Report (July 2011). Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development.

58. Savas B. Z., (1999), “Effect of Microstructure on Durability of Concrete” PhD Thesis, North Carolina State University, Department of Civil Engineering, Raleigh NC.

59. Slagment, (2010), AfriSam Products and Services, < http://www.afrisam.co.za/products-services/cement/slagment/ >. Accessed: 18 October 2014.

60. Shahroodi, Ahmad. (2010) “Development of Test Methods for Assessment of Concrete Durability for Use in Performance-Based Specifications” M.A.Sc. University of Toronto, Department of Civil Engineering, pp. 219.

61. Shi C., (2004) “Effect of Mixing Proportions of Concrete onits Electrical Conductivity and the Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (ASTM C1202 or ASSHTO T277) Results”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2004, pp. 537-545.

62. Spragg, R. (2013) “The Rapid Assessment of Transport Properties of Cementitious Materials Using Electrical Methods”.M.S.C.E. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

63. Spragg, R., Bu, Y., Snyder, K., Bentz, D., Weiss, J. (2013a) “Electrical Testing of Cement-Based Materials: Role of Testing Techniques, Sample Conditioning, and Accelerated Curing” Final Report. Joint Transportation Research Program, Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University. Report Number: FHWA/IN/JRTP-2013/28. DOI: 10.5703/1288284315230. pp. 1- 19.

64. Spragg, R., Villani, C., Snyder, K., Bentz, D., Bullard, J., and Weiss, J. (2013b) “Electrical Resistivity Measurements in Cementitious systems: Observations of Factors that influence the Measurements”. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2342, Concrete Materials. pp. 90 – 98.

65. Snyder, K., Feng, X., Keen, B., and Mason, T. (2003) “Estimating the Electrical Conductivity of Cement Paste Pore Solution from OH, K, and Na Concentrations”. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 793 – 798.

66. Swamy, R. N., (1996) “High Performance Durability through Design” International Workshop on High Performance Concrete, SP – 159, P. Zia, ed., American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. pp.209 – 230.

67. Stanish K., Hooton R. D., and Thomas M. D. A.(1997), “Testing the Chloride Penetration Resistance of Concrete: A Literature Review”, Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, FHWA Contract DTFH61-97-R 00022.

68. Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2), Condition Assessment, Technologies –Electrical Resistivity – NDToolbox, < http://www.ndtoolbox.org/content/bridge/er-description >, accessed 21 January 2015.

69. Taylor P., Tennis P., Obla K., Ram P., Van Dam T., and Dylla H. (2013), “Durability of Concrete”, Second Edition, Transportation Research Circular E-C171. September 2013. Transportation Research Board Durability of the National Academies. pp. 1-78.

70. Wei, X., and Li, Z., (2006) “Early Hydration Process of Portland Cement Paste by Electrical Measurement”. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, V.18, No. 1. pp. 99-105.

71. Wenner, F. (1916) “A Method of Measuring Earth Resistivity”. Bulletin of the National Bureau of Standards, Vol.12, pp.469-478.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top