The Impact of Direct Instruction and Cooperative Retelling using a Collaborative Podcasting tool on the Narrative Writing Skills of Upper Elementary School Children in the Inclusive Classroom.
PhD thesis, Concordia University.
- Accepted Version
To address the writing challenges experienced by many Normally Achieving students (NA) and students with learning disabilities (LD) in the inclusive classroom, this quasi-experiment study examined the outcomes of two technology-supported instructional interventions and an untreated control group with pretest and posttests, and posttest only, aimed at improving the narrative writing skills of cycle 3 (Grades 5 and 6) students. The first intervention was focused on the development of oral retelling skills using a direct instruction and a cooperative retelling (CR) method. The second intervention employed a direct instruction (DI) method. Embedded within each intervention was an additional weekly remediation session given to the LD students. Both interventions required participants to listen to podcasts of folktales hosted on the Internet site VoiceThread. The same site was used by the CR group to facilitate the cooperative retelling process.
A total of 131 students, 57 Grade 5 and 74 Grade 6 students participated in the study, which lasted 5 months. While the treatments differed in their theoretical foundations and instructional interventions, both involved four cycles of folktale retelling written production. To measure the impact of the treatments, participants’ pre- and posttest written narratives were analyzed at both the microstructure level (story length and grammatical complexity as measured by the total number of T-units and syntax) and the macrostructure level (total number of episodes in the story as well as overall story coherence).
Two-way ANOVAs conducted on gain score data indicated that students in the CR conditions at both the Grade 5 and Grade 6 levels outperformed students in the DI and the Control groups on most microstructure and macrostructure dependent variables. The impact of the CR intervention was evident for both normally achieving and students with learning disabilities. With the exception of the original story measure for the Grade 6 group, the DI intervention did not have a significant impact on participants’ narrative writing skills. The results highlight the importance of oral language skills to narrative writing and demonstrate how cooperative learning instructional methods with feedback and review, supported by technologies, facilitate the development of written narrative competencies.
|Divisions:||Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Education|
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Degree Name:||Ph. D.|
|Date:||12 December 2011|
|Thesis Supervisor(s):||Schmid, Richard, F.|
|Keywords:||writing, narratives, oral language, children, inclusive education, upper elementary, direct instruction, cooperative learning, retelling, learning disabilities|
|Deposited On:||20 Jun 2012 18:44|
|Last Modified:||05 Nov 2016 02:03|
References:Abrami, P.C., & Bernard, R.M. (2006). Research on distance education: In defense of field experiments. Distance Education, 27(1), 5-26.
Abrami, P. C., Chambers, B., Poulsen, C., Howden, J., d’Apollonia, S., De Simone, C., & Howden, J. (1995). Classroom connections: Understanding and using cooperative learning. Toronto, Canada: Harcourt Brace.
Adams, M. J. (1994). Beginning to read. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Allison, P. D. (1990). Change score as dependent variables in regression analysis.
Sociological Methodology, 20, 93-114.
American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Ananny, M. (2002). Supporting children’s collaborative authoring: Practicing written literacy while composing oral texts. Proceeding of the Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (pp. 595-596). Boulder, CO: Foundations for a CSCL Community.
Anderson, J. R. (1983). The spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 261-295.
Applebee, A. N. (1978). The child's concept of story: Ages two to seventeen. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 189-208. doi:10.1016/S0021-9924(03)00019-4
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
Barron, A. E., Kemker, K., Harmes, C., & Kalaydijian, K. (2003). Large-scale research study on technology in K-12 schools. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35(4), 489-507.
Beneteau, S. (2007). The king’s ring. On Dreaming Tall: Stories for Growing Girls. [CD]. Montreal, Québec: Stephanie Beneteau.
Beneteau, S. (2007). The name of the tree. On Dreaming Tall: Stories for Growing Girls.[CD]. Montreal, Québec: Stephanie Beneteau.
Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Berman, R., & Verhoevan, L. (2002). Cross-linguistic perspectives on the development of text-production abilities. Written Language and Literacy, 5(1), 1-43.
Berninger, V. W. (2000). Development of language by hand and its relation to language by ear, mouth, and eye. Topics in Language Disorder, 20(4), 65-84.
Brenner, S. L. (1997). Storytelling and story schema: A bridge to reading comprehension through story retelling. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 9820462).
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513-531.
Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42.
Bruner, J. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
Bruner, J. (1991). The narrative construction of reality. Critical Inquiry, 18(1), 1-21.
Burtis, B., Bereiter, C., Scardamalia, M., & Tetrse, J. (1983). The development of planning in writing. In G. Wells & B. Kroll (Eds.), Explorations in the development of writing (pp. 153-174). New York: Willey.
Cameron, C. A., & Moshenko, B. (1996). Elicitation of knowledge transformational reports while children write narratives. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 28(4), 271-280.
Canadian Education Statistics Council, (2006). Education Indicators in Canada Report of the Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program 2005(Catalogue No. 81-582-XIE). Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/81-582-x/81-582-x2006001-eng.htm
Cassell, J. (2004). Towards a model of technology and literacy development: Story listening systems. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(1), 75-105.
CEO Forum on Technology in Education. (2001, March). Education Technology Must Be Included in Comprehensive Education Legislation. Washington, DC: Author
Cohen, E. (1986). Designing group work: Strategies for the heterogeneous classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design & analysis issues for field settings. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Cossette, L., & Duclos, E. (2002). A Profile of Disability in Canada, 2001 (Catalogue No. 89-577-XIE). Ottawa, Canada: Ministry of Industry. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/89-577-XIE/
Dale, E., & Chall, J. S. (1949). A formula for predicting readability. Educational Research Bulletin, 27(1), 11-28.
Dale, E., & Chall, J.S. (1995). Readability revisited: The new Dale-Chall readability formula. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Davies, P., Shanks, B., & Davis, K. (2004). Improving narrative skills in young children with delayed language development. Educational Review, 56(3), 1465-3397.
Decortis, F., & Rizzo, A. (2002). New active tools for supporting narrative structures. Personale Ubiquitous Computing, 6(5-6), 416-429. doi:10.1007/s007790200046
De La Paz, S., & Graham, S. (2002). Explicitly teaching strategies, skills, and knowledge: Writing instruction in middle school classrooms. Journal of Educational, 94(4), 687-698. doi:10.1037//0022-06184.108.40.2067
Di Blas, N., Paolini, P., & Sabiescu, A. (2010). Collective digital storytelling at school as a whole-class interaction. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (pp. 11-19). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Dimino, J., Gersten, R., Carnine, D., & Blake, G. (1990). Story grammar: An approach for promoting at-risk secondary students’ comprehension of literature. The Elementary School Journal, 91(1), 19-32.
Dimino, J., Taylor, R., & Gersten, R. (1995). Synthesis of the research on story grammar as a means to increase comprehension. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 11, 53-72.
Dimitrov, D. M., & Rumrill, P. D. (2003). Pretest-posttest designs and measurement of change. Work, 20, 159-165.
Druin, A., Bederson, B., Boltman, A., Miura, A., Knotts-Callahan, D., & Platt, M. (1999). Children as our technology design partners. In A. Druin (Ed.), The design of children's technology (pp. 51-72). San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Dumas, J. E., Lynch, A. M., Laughlin, J. E., Smith, E. P., & Prinz, R. J. (2001). Promoting intervention fidelity: Conceptual issues, methods, and preliminary results from the EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 20, 38-47.
Englert, S., Raphael, T., Fear, K., & Anderson, L. (1988). Students’ metacognitive knowledge about how to write informational texts. Learning Disability Quarterly, 11, 18–46.
Fey, M. E., Catts, H. W., Proctor-Williams, K., Tomblin, J. R., & Zhang, X. (2004). Oral and written story compositions skills of children with language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 1301-1318.
Fitzmaurice, G. M., Laird, N. M., & Ware, J. H. (2004). Applied longitudinal analysis. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Fitzgerald, J., & Teasley, A. B. (1986). Effects of instruction in narrative structure on children's writing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(6), 424-432.
Fitzmaurice, G. M., Laird, N. M., & Ware, J. H. (2004). Applied longitudinal analysis. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1984). The representation of meaning in writing. Written Communication, 1, 120-160.
Fox, B. J., & Wright, M. (1987). Connecting school and home literacy program through cross-age reading. The Reading Teacher, 50(5), 396-403.
Fusai, C., Saudelli, B., Marti, P. Decortis, F & Rizzo, A. (2003). Media composition and narrative performance at school. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19(2), 177-185.
Gagne, R. M. (1984). Learning outcomes and their effects: Useful categories of human performance. American Psychologist, 39(4), 377-385.
Gambrell, L. B., Koskinen, P. S., & Kapinus, B. A. (1991). Studies for retelling as an instructional strategy. Journal of Educational Research, 84, 358-362.
Geist, E. A., & Boydston, R. C. (2002). The effect of using written retelling as a teaching strategy on the students performance on the TOWL-2. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29(2), 108-118.
Gersten, R., & Baker, S. (2001). Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. The Elementary School Journal, 101(3), 252-272.
Gjedde, L. (2004). Designing for learning in narrative multimedia environments. In I. S. Mishra & R.C. Sharma (Eds.), Interactive multimedia in education and training (pp. 101-112). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
Good, T. L. (1987). Two decades of research on teacher expectations: Findings and future directions. Journal of Teacher Education, 38, 32–47.
Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère de l’Education (2004). Boys’ academic achievement: Putting the findings into perspective: Summary report. (ISBN 2-550-40626-5). Québec, Canada: Bibliothèque nationale du Québec.
Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère de l’Education (2001). Québec Education Program (Report No. 01-00611). Québec, Canada: Bibliothèque nationale du Québec.
Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R. B. (1996). Theory and practice of writing: An applied linguistic perspective. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
Graham, S., & Harris, K.R. (1989). Improving learning disabled students’ skills at composing essays: Self-instructional strategy training. Exceptional Children, 56, 201-231.
Graham, S., & Harris, K.R. (2003). Students with learning disabilities and the process of writing: A meta-analysis of SRSD studies. In L. Swanson, K. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (pp. 323-344). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Larsen, L. (2001). Prevention and intervention of writing difficulties for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 74-84.
Graham, S., Harris, K.R., & Mason, L. (2005). Improving the writing performance, knowledge, and motivation of struggling young writers: The effects of self- regulated strategy development. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, 207-241.
Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Troia, G. A. (1998). Writing and self- regulation: Cases from the self-regulated strategy development model. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning, from teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. 20-41). New York: Guilford Press.
Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 445-476.
Griffith, P., Ripich, D., & Dastoli, S. (1986). Story structure, cohesion, and propositions in story recalls by learning disabled and nondisabled children. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 15(6), 539-555.
Hadley, P. A. (1998). Language sampling protocols for eliciting text-level discourse. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 29, 132-147.
Hallahan, D. P., & Mock, D. R. (2006). A brief history of the field of learning disabilities. In H. L. Swanson, K. R. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (pp. 16-29). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Holliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. London, United Kingdom: Longman.
Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (1996). Making the writing process work: Strategies for composition and self-regulation. Cambridge, MA: Brookline.
Harris, K. R., Graham, S., & Mason, L. H. (2006). Self-regulated strategy development for 2nd-grade students who struggle with writing. American Educational Research Journal, 43, 295-340.
Hayes, J. R. (1996). A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing. In C. M. Levy & S. Rendell (Eds.), The science of writing: Theories, methods, individual differences, and applications (pp. 1-27). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hayes, J. R. (2006). New directions in writing theory. In C. MacArthur, S., Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), The writing handbook (pp. 28-40). New York, NY: Guilford.
Henson, R. K. (2006). Effect-size measures and meta-analytic thinking in counseling psychology research. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(5), 601-629. doi:10.1177/0011000005283558
Hook, P. E., & Haynes, C. W. (2009). Deficits, assessment, and intervention approaches: Reading and writing. In R. Schwartz (Ed.), Handbook of child language disorders (pp. 424-444). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Hughes, D. L., McGillivray, L., & Schmidek, M. (1997). Guide to narrative language: Procedures for assessment. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications.
Hunt, K. (1965). Grammatical structures written at three grade levels (NCTE Research report No. 3). Champaign, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Jenkins, J. R., & O’Connor, R. E. (2003). Cooperative learning for students with learning disabilities: Evidence from experiments, observations, and interviews. In H. L Swanson, K. R. Harris, & Graham, S. (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (pp. 417-430). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
John, S. F., Lui, M., & Tannock, R. (2003). Children’s story retelling and comprehension using a new narrative resource. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 18, 91-113.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2004). Cooperation and the use of technology. In D. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 1017-1044). New York, NY: Simon & Shuster Macmillan.
Jonassen, D. H., & Reeves, T. C. (1996). Learning with technology: Using computers as cognitive tools. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communication and technology (pp. 693-719). New York, NY: Simon & Shuster Macmillan.
Kaderavek, J. N., & Sulzby, E. (2000). Narrative production by children with and without specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 34-49.
Kalmbach, J. R. (1986). Getting at the point of retellings. Journal of Reading, 29, 326-333.
Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1985). A constructivist approach to modeling linguistic and cognitive development. Archives de Psychologie, 53, 113-126.
Knapp, R, P., & Schafer, D.W. (2009). From gain score t to ANCOVA F (and vice versa). Practical assessment Research and Evaluation, 14(6), 1-7.
Kotula, A. W. (2003). Matching reader to instructional material: The use of classical readability measures for students with language learning disabilities and dyslexia. Topics in Language Disorder, 93, 190-203.
Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of bloom's taxonomy: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(4), 212-218.
Kwiat, J. (2008). From Aristotle to Gabriel: A summary of the narratology literature for story technologies (Technical Report KMI-08-01). Milton Keynes, United Kingdom: Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University.
Labov, W. (1997). Some Further Steps in Narrative Analysis. Journal of Narrative and Life History, 7, 395-415.
Learning Disabilities Association of Canada. (2002). Official definition of learning disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.ldac-acta.ca/learn-more/ld-defined/official-definition-of-learning-disabilities.html
Leahy, M. (2007). Clay animation and multimodal storytelling. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 628-633). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Levi, G., Musatti, L., Pieredda, L., & Sechi, E. (1984). Cognitive and linguistic strategies in children with reading disabilities in an oral storytelling test. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17(7), 406-410.
Levine, T. R., & Hullett, C. R. (2002). Eta squared, partial eta squared, and misreporting of effect size in communication research. Human Communication Research, 28, 612-625.
Liles, B. Z. (1987). Episode organization and cohesive conjunctives in narratives of children with and without language disorder. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 30, 185-196.
Liles, B. Z. (1993). Narrative discourse in children with language disorders and children with normal language: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36(5), 868-8
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access
Repository Staff Only: item control page