The coach as a moral influence


The coach as a moral influence

Pelaez, Sandra (2011) The coach as a moral influence. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

PDF - Accepted Version


Elite sport requires a great amount of time deliberately devoted to training and to
optimize improvement (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer, 1993). Coaches are
important social influences for an athlete (e.g., Smith & Smoll, 1996). Elite athletes
spend more time with coaches than with other potential sources of influence. Therefore,
the main purpose of the present study was to study the coach as a moral influence.
The review of literature indicated that coaches are moral influences for their
athletes. However, this evidence has to be considered with caution because of the
characteristics of the designs of the studies (e.g., theoretical framework, methodology).
Based on the evidence provided by the literature review, two qualitative case studies were
conducted in an attempt to address current gaps in literature. For the pilot study, 7 elite
coaches that had been athletes themselves were sampled and for the main study 10
coaches with the same characteristics were sampled. Interviews were conducted and data
was inductively analyzed using Grounded Theory strategies for analysis (Corbin &
Strauss, 2008; Strauss & Corbin, 1998). In addition, the dimension of the Coaching
Efficacy Scale evaluating coaches’ self-efficacy to instil morality in their athletes was
used in the main study (Feltz, Chase, Moritz, & Sullivan, 1999).
Evidence from these research efforts generated four major findings. First, coaches
are important moral influences. Participants in this study recognized their past coaches
had a moral influence over them. Also, these participants acknowledged that as coaches,
they had the moral obligation to watch over morality within the team. Second, coaches’
conceptions of morality entail four dimensions: a) “elite sport involvement”; b) “game”;
c) “interaction with others”; and d) “self-related”. Third, participants’ past moral
influences are reflected in their conceptions of morality, and captured in their current
coaching practices. Past coaches are models from which current coaching interventions
are built. Finally, a better understanding of moral influences in sport can be attained if
different theoretical contributions are considered together. Important factors concerning
moral influence are a coach-athlete relationship and culture.
Findings from this thesis have addressed a knowledge gap in the field. This
qualitative design has provided valuable information concerning the factors that enable or
prevent moral influences, and the environment where moral influences take place. Also,
this data has provided insight on potential targets in the design of future educational
coaching interventions to sensitize coaches concerning morality. Future research
endeavour should continue build upon this thesis by considering other populations (e.g.,
athletes) and other sport contexts (e.g., recreational). The relationship between coachathlete
relationship and culture needs to be examined in-depth.

Divisions:Concordia University > School of Graduate Studies
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Pelaez, Sandra
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Special Individualized Program
Date:16 November 2011
Thesis Supervisor(s):Bacon, Simon L.
Keywords:coach - socialisation - morality - culture - self-regulation - coach-athlete relationship
ID Code:7400
Deposited On:13 Jun 2011 11:09
Last Modified:13 Jun 2011 11:09
Acosta, R.V., & Carpenter, L.J. (2010). Women in intercollegiate sport. A longitudinal national study, thirty three year update. Retrieved June 2nd, 2010, from Acosta/Carpenter:
Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes. In G.C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in Sport and Exercise (pp. 161-176). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Antshel, K.M., & Anderman, E.M. (2000). Social influences on sport participation during adolescence. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 33(2), 85-94.
Arnold, P.J. (1984). Sport, moral education and the development of character. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 18(2), 275-281.
Balague, G. (1999). Understanding identity, value, and meaning when working with elite athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 13(1), 89-98.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. NY: General Learning Press.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of Child Development: Six Theories of Child Development (Vol. 6). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In W.M. Kurtines & J.L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development: Theory (Vol. I, pp. 45-104). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The exercise of Control. NY: Freeman & Company.
Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetuation of inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 88(1), 1-45.
Barrow, J. (1977). The variables of leadership: A review and conceptual framework. Academy of Management Review, 2(2), 231-251.
Barrow, R. (2007). An introduction to moral philosophy and moral education. NY: Routledge.
Becker, H.S. (1998). Tricks of the trade: How to think about your research while you are doing it. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Beller, J.M., & Stoll, S.K. (August, 1993). Sportsmanship: An antiquated concept? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, August, 74-79.
Bergmann-Drewe, S. (2000). Coaches, ethics and autonomy. Sport, Education, and Society, 5(2), 147-162.
Blasi, A. (1987). Comment: The psychological definitions of morality. In J. Kegan & S. Lamb (Eds.), The emergence of morality in young children (pp. 83-90). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Blasi, A. (1990). How should psychologist define morality? or, The negative side effects of philosophy's influence on psychology. In T.E. Wren (Ed.), The moral domain: Essays in the ongoing discussion between philosophy and the social sciences (pp. 38-70). Cambridge, MA: The Massachussetts Institute of Technology Press.
Boardley, I.D., & Kavussanu, M. (2007). Development and validation of the moral disengagement in sport scale. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29(5), 608-628.
Boardley, I.D., & Kavussanu, M. (2008). The moral disengagement in sport scale - short. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(14), 1507-1517.
Boardley, I.D., Kavussanu, M., & Ring, C. (2008). Athletes perceptions of coaching effectiveness and athlete-related outcomes in Rugby Union: An investigation based on the coaching efficacy model. The Sport Psychologist, 22(3), 269-287.
Boixadós, M., & Cruz, J. (1995). Construction of a fairplay attitude scale in soccer [Abstract]. Paper presented at the 9th European Congress of Sport Psychology, Brussels, Belgium.
Boixadós, M., Cruz, J., Torregrosa, M., & Valiente, L. (2004). Relationships among motivational climate, satisfaction, perceived ability, and fair play attitudes in youth soccer players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16(4), 301-317.
Bovyer, G. (1963). Children's concepts of sportsmanship in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Research Quarterly, 34(3), 282-287.
Bredemeier, B.J. (1985). Moral reasoning and the perceived legitimacy of intentionally injurious sport acts. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 7(2), 110-124.
Bredemeier, B.J. (1994). Children's moral reasoning and their assertive, aggressive, and submissive tendencies in sport and daily life. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 16(1), 1-14.
Bredemeier, B.J., & Shields, D.L. (1984). Divergence in moral reasoning about sport and everyday life. Sociology of Sport Journal, 1(4), 348-357.
Bredemeier, B.J., & Shields, D.L. (1986a). Athletic aggression: An issue of contextual morality. Sociology of Sport Journal, 3(1), 15-28.
Bredemeier, B.J., & Shields, D.L. (1986b). Moral growth among athletes and nonathletes: A comparative analysis. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 147(1), 7-18.
Bredemeier, B.J., & Shields, D.L. (1998). Moral assessment in sport psychology. In J.L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement (pp. 257-276). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
Bredemeier, B.J., & Shields, D.L. (2005). Sport and the development of character. In D. Hackfort, J.L. Duda & R. Lidor (Eds.), Handbook of research in applied sport psychology (pp. 275-290). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
Bredemeier, B.J., & Shields, D.L. (2006). Sports and character development. President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports and Sports Research Digest, 7(1), 1-8.
Bredemeier, B.J., Weiss, M.R., Shields, D.L., & Cooper, B.A.B. (1987). The relationship between children's legitimacy judgments and their moral reasoning, agression tendencies, and sport involvement. Sociology of Sport Journal, 4(1), 48-60.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1962). The role of age, sex, class, and culture in studies of moral development. Religious Education, 57(4), 3-17.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1990). Discovering what families do. In D. Blankenhorn, S. Bayme & J.B. Elshtain (Eds.), Rebuilding the nest: A new commitment to the American family. Milwaukee, WI: Family Service America.
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P.A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In R.M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 993-1028). NY: Wiley.
Brustad, R.J. (1996). Attraction to physical activity in Urban Schoolchildren: Parental Socialization and Gender Influences. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67(3), 316-323.
Buford-May, R.A. (2001). The sticky situation of sportsmanship: contexts and contradictions in sportsmanship among high school boys basketball players. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 25(4), 372-389.
Bugental, D.B., & Goodnow, J.J. (1998). Socialization Processes. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., Vol. III, pp. 389-462.). NY: Wiley.
Butler, D.L. (2006). Frames of inquiry in educational psychology: Beyond the quantitative-qualitative divide. In P.A. Alexander & P.H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 903-929). Washington, DC: APA.
Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport. (2002, July). Canadian public opinion survey on youth and sport (Item No. B-047). Ottawa, ON: Decima Reseach Inc.
Carron, A.V. (1978). Role behavior and coach-athlete interaction. International Review of Sport Sociology, 13(1), 51-56.
Chelladurai, P. (2007). Leadership in sport. In G. Tenenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed., pp. 113-135). Hoboken: NJ: Wiley.
Chelladurai, P., & Carron, A.V. (1978). Leadership. Ottawa, ON: Sociology of Sports Monographs.
Chow, G.M., Murray, K.E., & Feltz, D.L. (2009). Individual, team, and coach predictors of players likelihood to aggress in youth soccer. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31(4), 425-443.
Coleman, L., Cox, L., & Roker, D. (2008). Girls and young women’s participation in physical activity: psychological and social influences. Health Education Research, 23(4), 633-647.
Conroy, D.E., Silva, J.M., Newcomer, R.R., Walker, B.W., & Johnson, M.S. (2001). Personal and participatory socializers of the perceived legitimacy of aggressive behavior in sport. Aggressive Behavior, 27(6), 405-418.
Corbin, J.M., & Strauss, A.L. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Côté, J. (1999). The influence of the family in the development of talent in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 13(4), 395-417.
Côté, J., Salmela, J.H., Trudel, P., Baria, A., & Russell, S.J. (1995). The coaching model: A grounded assessment for expert gymnastic coaches' knowledge. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17(1), 1-17.
Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crowne, D.P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349-354.
Cruz, J., Boixadós, M., Valiente, L., Ruiz, A., Arbona, P., Molons, Z. (...) (1991). Identificacion de los valores relevantes en jovenes jugadores de futbol [Identification of relevant values in young soccer players]. Revista de Investigación y Documentación sobre las Ciencias de la Educación Física y del Deporte 19(1), 83-99.
Danish, S.J., & Nellen, V.C. (1997). New roles for sport psychologists: Teaching life skills through sport to at-risk youth. Quest, 49(1), 100-113.
Danish, S.J., Nellen, V.C., & Owens, S. (1996). Community based programs for adolescents: Using sports to teach lifeskills. In J.L. Van Raalte & B.W. Brewer (Eds.), Exploring sport and exercise psychology (pp. 205-228). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Danish, S.J., Petitpas, A.J., & Hale, B.D. (1992). A developmental-educational intervention model of sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 6(4), 403-415.
De Busk, M., & Hellison, D. (1989). Implementing a physical education self-responsibility model for delinquency-prone youth. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 8(2), 104-112.
Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. NY: Plenum Press.
Denzin, N.K., & Lincoln, Y.S. (2005). The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 1-32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dickins, T.E. (2004). Social Constructionism as Cognitive Science. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 34(4), 333-352.
Dillon, D.T. (1984). The classification of research questions. Review of Educational Research, 54(3), 327-361.
Drotar, D. (2010). Editorial: A call for replications of research in pediatric psychology and guidance for authors. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(8), 801-805.
Duffy, P.J., Lyons, D.C., Moran, A.P., Warrington, G.D., & MacManus, C.P. (2006). How we got here: Perceived influences on the development and success of International athletes. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 27(3/4), 150-167.
Duquin, M.E. (1984). Power and authority: Moral consensus and conformity in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 19(3/4), 295-304.
Duquin, M.E., & Schroeder-Braun, K. (1996). Power, empathy, and moral conflict in sport. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 2(4), 351-367.
Eisenberg, N. (2007). Prosocial behavior Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R.A. (1998). Prosocial development. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., Vol. III, pp. 701-778). NY: Wiley.
Eisenhart, M. (1998). On the subject of interpretive reviews. Review of Educational Research, 68(4), 391-399.
Ennis, C.D. (1999). Creating a culturally relevant curriculum for disengaged girls. Sport, Education, and Society, 4(1), 31-49.
Ennis, C.D., Cothran, D.J., Davidson, K.S., Loftus, S.J., & Owens, L. (1997). Implementing curriculum within a context of fear and disengagement. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 17(1), 52-71.
Ennis, C.D., Solmon, M.A., Satina, B., Loftus, S.J., Mensch, S.J., & McCauley, M.T. (1999). Creating a sense of family in urban schools using "Sport for Peace" curriculum. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70(3), 273-285.
Entwistle, N.J. (2005). Learning outcomes and ways of thinking across contrasting disciplines and settings in higher education. The Curriculum Journal, 16(1), 67-82.
Entwistle, N.J., & Peterson, E.R. (2004). Conceptions of learning and knowledge in higher education: Relationships with study behaviour and influences of learning environments. International Journal of Educational Research, 41(6), 407-428.
Ericsson, K.A., Krampe, R.T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363-406.
Eysenck, H.J. (1976). The biology of morality. In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior. NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Feltz, D.L., Chase, M.A., Moritz, S.E., & Sullivan, P.J. (1999). A conceptual model of coaching efficacy: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(4), 765-776.
Fredricks, J., & Eccles, J. (2004). Parental influences on youth involvement in sports. In M.R. Weiss (Ed.), Developmental Sport and Exercise Psychology: A Lifespan Perspective (pp. 145-164). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of the cultures. NY: Basic Books.
Gergen, K.J. (2009). Relational Being: Beyond Self and Community. NY: Oxford University Press.
Gergen, M.M., & Gergen, K.J. (Eds.). (2003). Social construction: A reader. London: Sage.
Gibbons, S.L., & Ebbeck, V. (1997). The effect of different teaching strategies on the moral development of physical education students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 17(1), 85-98.
Gibbons, S.L., Ebbeck, V., & Weiss, M.R. (1995). Fair Play for Kids: Effects on the moral development of children in physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66(3), 247-255.
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goeb, R.A. (1997). A comparison of cognitive moral reasoning among selected NCAA Division II intercollegiate coaches and athletes. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND.
Goodger, M.J., & Jackson, J.J. (1985). Fair Play: Coaches attitudes towards the laws of soccer. Journal of Sport Behavior, 8(1), 34-41.
Guivernau Rojas, M., & Duda, J.L. (2002). Moral atmosphere and athletic aggressive tendencies in young soccer players. Journal of Moral Education, 31(1), 67-85.
Hartshorne, H., & May, M.A. (1928). Studies in the nature of character: Studies in deceit (Vol. 1). NY: Macmillan.
Hassandra, M., Goudas, M., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Theodorakis, Y. (2007). A fair play intervention program in school Olympic education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22(2), 99-114.
Hellison, D.R., Martinek, T.J., & Cutforth, N.J. (1996). Beyond violence prevention in inner-city physical activity programs. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 2(4), 321-337.
Higgins, A., Power, F.C., & Kohlberg, L. (1984). The relationship of moral atmosphere to judgements of responsibility. In W.M. Kurtines & J.L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Morality, moral behavior, and moral development (pp. 74-106). NY: Wiley.
Hoffman, M.L. (1984). Empathy, its limitations, and its role in a comprehensive moral theory. In W.M. Kurtines & J.L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Morality, Moral Behavior, and Moral Development (pp. 283-302). NY: Wiley.
Holt, N.L. (2008). Introduction: Positive youth development through sport. In N.L. Holt (Ed.), Positive youth development through sport. London, NY: Routledge.
Holt, N.L., & Jones, M.I. (2008). Future directions for positive youth development and sport research. In N.L. Holt (Ed.), Positive youth development through sport (pp. 122-132). London: Routledge.
Holt, N.L., & Sparkes, A.C. (2001). An ethnographic study of cohesiveness on a college soccer team over a season. The Sport Psychologist, 15(3), 237-259.
Holt, N.L., Black, D.E., Tamminen, K.A., Fox, K.R., & Mandigo, J.L. (2008). Levels of social complexity and dimensions of peer experiences in youth sport. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, (4), 411-431.
Holt, N.L., Tamminen, K.A., T
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Document Downloads

More statistics for this item...

Concordia University - Footer