Aloraier, Abdulkareem S. and Joshi, Suraj and Asadi, Mahyar and Alena, Rubicel G. and Goldak, John A. (2010) Microstructural and hardness modeling: Effect of multiple bead deposition in temper bead welding technique. International Journal of Energy & Technology, 2 (16). pp. 1-11. ISSN 2035-911X
Official URL: http://www.journal-enertech.eu/papers-archive/doc_...
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) process is often employed in industry where multiple welding sequences are used to produce stronger fastening between mating parts. Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) is almost always recommended for relieving residual stresses and tempering the microstructural properties in order to prolong the fatigue and fracture life; however, it is often done away with due to the high costs involved, time constraints, infeasibility or sometime deleterious effects of the tempering process. This paper investigates whether the sequence of the initial deposition of the weld material itself can temper the microstructural properties and reduce the size of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) in the weld and parent metal. Four weld beads are deposited on a mild steel plate, with each being tempered by an overlapping bead using the Temper Bead Welding (TBW) technique. Numerical simulation is performed using FEA software VrWeld to evaluate the microstructure, hardness and size of the HAZ. It is concluded that there are significant improvements in the microstructure, hardness and size of the HAZ as a result of the deposition of the overlapping, tempering beads.
|Divisions:||Concordia University > Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical and Industrial Engineering|
|Authors:||Aloraier, Abdulkareem S. and Joshi, Suraj and Asadi, Mahyar and Alena, Rubicel G. and Goldak, John A.|
|Journal or Publication:||International Journal of Energy & Technology|
|Keywords:||Flux Cored Arc Welding, Heat Affected Zone, Temper Bead Welding, Weld sequence, Microstructure|
|Deposited By:||SURAJ JOSHI|
|Deposited On:||18 Nov 2011 20:38|
|Last Modified:||18 Nov 2011 20:38|
 Radaj, D., 2003, "Welding residual stresses and distortion: Calculation and measurement," Neusser-Werbedruck GmbH, Remscheid, Dusseldorf.
 Dayawansa, P., Chitty, G., Kerezsi, B., Bartosiewicz, H., Price, JWH, 2006, "Fracture Mechanics of Mining Dragline Booms," Engineering Failure Analysis, 13(4) pp. 716-725.
 Joshi, S., Semetay, C., Price, JWH, 2010, "Weld-Induced Residual Stresses in a Prototype Dragline Cluster and Comparison with Design Codes," Thin-Walled Structures, 48(2) pp. 89-102.
 Joshi, S., and Price, JWH, 2009, "A Comparative Study on Application of Design Codes for Prediction of Fatigue Life of a Mining Dragline Cluster," Engineering Failure Analysis, 16(5) pp. 1562-1569.
 Joshi, S., Price, JWH, and Dayawansa, D. P., 2010, "Influence of Variations in Geometric Parameters and an Alternative Design for Improved Fatigue Life of a Mining Dragline Joint," Engineering Structures, 32(5) pp. 1333-1340.
 Health and Safety Executive, UK, “Steel - Offshore Technology Report 2001/015”, 2002.
 Joshi, S., Mashiri, F. R., Dayawansa, D. P., Zhao, X. -L., and Price, JWH, 2010, "Structural Health Monitoring of a Dragline Cluster using the Hot Spot Stress Method". Article in Press.
 Ribic, B., Rai, R., and Debroy, T., 2008, "Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in GTA/ Laser Hybrid Welding," Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 13(8) pp. 683-693.
 Goldak, J., Gu, M., Paramjeet, K., 1990, "Computer simulation of welding processes," in Proc. of the Int. Conference on International Trends in Welding Science and Technology, ASME Publication, 20, pp. 193-201.
 Goldak, J., Chakravarti, A., and Bibby, M., 1984, "A New Finite Element Model for Welding Heat Sources," Metallurgical Transactions B, 15, pp. 299-305.
 Murugan, S., Kumar, P. V., Gill, T. P. S., 1999, "Numerical Modeling and Experimental Determination of Temperature Distribution during Manual Metal Arc Welding," Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 4(6) pp. 357-364.
 Webster, P. J., Ananthaviravakumar, N., Hughes, D. J., 2002, "Measurement and Modelling of Residual Stresses in a TIG Weld," Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, 74 (SUPPL II) pp. 1421-1423.
 Dong, P., Hong, J., Bynum, J., 1997, "Analysis of residual stresses in Al–Li alloy repair welds. Approximate methods in the design and analysis of pressure vessels and piping components," ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Division Publication, 347 pp. 61-75.
 Hong, J. K., Tsai, C. -L., and Dong, P., 1998, "Assessment of Numerical Procedures for Residual Stress Analysis of Multipass Welds." Welding Journal, Welding Research Supplement, pp. 372-382.
 Brown, S. B., and Song, H., 1992, "Finite Element Simulation of Welding of Large Structures," ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, 114 pp. 441-451.
 Dong, P., Ghadiali, P. N., and Brust, F. W., 1998, "Residual Stress Analysis of a Multi-pass Girth Weld,"ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Division - Fracture, Fatigue and Weld Residual Stress, 373 pp. 421-431.
 Yuan-xiang, Z., Xue-rong, Z., Xiao-fei, Z., 2004, "Numerical Simulation of Multi-Repaired Weld Residual Stress," Journal of Wuhan University of Technology -Materials Science Edition, 19(4) pp. 99-102.
 Jin, X. -J., Huo, L. -X., Zhang, Y. -F., 2004, "Three Dimensional Finite Element Numerical Simulation of Residual Stresses of all-Position Welding in Duplex Stainless Steel Pipe," Hanjie Xuebao/ Transactions of the China Welding Institution, 25(2) pp. 52-56.
 Lee, C. K., Candy, J., and Tan, C. P. H., 2004, "Measurement and Finite Element Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Arc Welding Process," International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, 21(4) pp. 171-177.
 Katsareas, D. E., Ohms, C., and Youtsos, A. G., 2004, "On the Performance of a Commercial Finite Element Code in Multipass Welding Simulation," in Proceedings of the ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, PVP - 477 pp. 29-37, San Diego, USA.
 Bate, S. K., Charles, R., and Warren, A., 2009, "Finite Element Analysis of a Single Bead-on-Plate Specimen using SYSWELD," International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 86(1) pp. 73-78.
 Price, JWH, Ziara-Paradowska, A., Joshi, S., 2008, "Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Residual Stresses in Welds: The Issue of Gauge Volume," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 50(3) pp. 513-521.
 Price, JWH, Paradowska, A., Joshi, S., 2006, "Residual Stresses Measurement by Neutron Diffraction and Theoretical Estimation in a Single Weld Bead," International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 83(5) pp. 381-387.
 Vincent, Y., 1999, "On the Validation of the Models Related to the Prevision of the HAZ Behaviour," ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Division - Fracture, Fatigue and Weld Residual Stress, 393 pp. 193-200.
 Dubois, D., Devaux, J., and Leblond, J. B., 1984, "Numerical Simulation of a Welding Operation: Calculation of Residual Stresses and Hydrogen Diffusion," ASME Fifth International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology, Materials and Manufacturing II, 1210-1238, San Francisco, USA.
 Roelens, J., 1996, "Numerical Simulation of some Multipass Submerged Arc Welding - Determination of the Residual Stresses and Comparison with Experimental Measurements," Welding Research Abroad, 42(8-9) pp. 17-24.
 British Standards Institute, 2000, "BS 7910: 2000 Guide on Methods for Assessing the Acceptability of Flaws in Metallic Structures".
 Standards Australia, 1998, "AS 4100: Steel Structures".
 Standards Australia, 1999, "AS 4458-1997/ Amdt. No. 1-1999: Pressure equipment-Manufacture".
 Paradowska, A., Price, JWH, and Dayawansa, P., 2006, "Study of Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Residual Stress Distribution in Tubular Joints," Welding Research Abroad, 52(2) pp. 10-19.
 Bulletin No. 412, "Overview of results from PVRC (Pressure Vessel Research Council) programs on half-bead/ temper bead/ controlled deposition techniques forimprovement of fabrication and service performance of Cr–Mo steels," Welding Research Council, pp. 16-26.
 Aloraier, A. S., Ibrahim, R. N., and Thomson, P., 2006, "FCAW Process to Avoid the use of Post Weld Heat Treatment," International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 83(5) pp. 394-398.
 Aloraier, A. S., Ibrahim, R. N., and Ghojel, J., 2004, "Eliminating Post-Weld Heat Treatment in Repair Welding by Temper Bead Technique: Role Bead Sequence in Metallurgical Changes," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 153-154 pp. 392-400.
 American Welding Society, 2005, "AWS A5.20/ A5.20M - Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding". Watt, D. F., Coon, L., Bibby, M., 1988, "An Algorithm for Modelling Microstructural Development in Weld Heat-Affected Zones (Part A) Reaction Kinetics," Acta Metallurgica, 36(11) pp. 3029-3035.
 Henwood, C., Bibby, M., Goldak, J., 1988, "Coupled Transient Heat Transfer - Microstructure Weld Computations (Part B)," Acta Metallurgica, 36(11) pp. 3037-3046.
 Gur, C. H., and Pan, J., 2008, "Handbook of Thermal Process Modelling of Steel," CRC Press, UK.
 ASTM E112 - 96(2004)e2, "Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size".
Repository Staff Only: item control page